Revelation 15: God’s Final Plagues

Revelation 15:5-8

Image above from Pinterest at: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/858428378943268977/

As we saw in previous blog posts, the application of chapter 15 to our lives is —

We look back at our suffering in the past as permitted by the loving providence of our all-wise God; and we also look forward in hope to the time when all things unjust will be set to right by that same all-wise God.

Verses 5-8 show God sending His righteous wrath from His heavenly throne to fall on the wicked.

Calvin-preaching-e1587363855273

John Calvin (pictured left preaching) says this —

“Preaching is the public exposition of Scripture by the man sent from God, in which God Himself is present in judgment and in grace.”

The preaching of divine wrath serves as a black velvet backdrop that causes the diamond of God’s mercy to shine brighter than ten thousand suns. Faithful pulpit ministry requires the declaration of both judgment and grace. The Word of God is a sharp, two-edged sword that softens and hardens, comforts and afflicts, saves and damns. (see Lawson, below.)

 


What a difference one omitted detail from a story can make!

I heard a story told about a man relating a personal story from his life. He began by saying, “I got out of my truck and went straight to the house. I knocked the front-door down, ran in, snatched a child from its bed, and brought it outside.”

He asked his friends, “Wasn’t that a great thing to do?”

They replied, “No! You are a kidnapper and should be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.”

He slapped his forehead and amended his earlier account, “Oh! I forgot to tell you the house was on fire!!!”


The Gospel preached without judgment will result in many perishing without Christ. We cannot omit the “bad news” from our Gospel presentation and see people converted. 

R-C-Sproul-Quote-The-gospel-is-only-good-news-when-we-understand

God’s final response to persecutors is put forth in 15:5-8. How will that affect us as believers? 

I. God’s righteous indignation will be visited upon the unrepentant persecutors of His people. vs. 5.

vs. 5 After this I looked, and the sanctuary of the tent of witness in heaven was opened…

“After these things” (meta tauta) once again announces that a new series of visions are about to appear. In this new vision the sanctuary (naos) of the tabernacle (skēnē) of testimony is opened in heaven. This is the heavenly pattern for the earthly tabernacle of Moses’ day. It is the throne room of God. 

Verse 15:5 is an expansion of the vision of the seven angels which John began to view in v. 1. However, now the tabernacle witnesses no longer to divine mercy but to judgment, since it is introduced in v. 5 to show that it is the source of the following bowl plagues. (see Beale, G. K., p. 322, below).

What was throughout the Seals, Trumpets, (and Thunders) is now changed from an offer of forgiveness to a series of plagues containing the wrath of God against the unrepentant.


C. S. Lewis on reversed roles in modern times CS-Lewis

The greatest barrier I have met is the almost total absence from the minds of my audience of any sense of sin. The early Christian preachers could assume in their hearers, whether Jews or Pagans, a sense of guilt. Thus the Christian message was in those days unmistakably the Good News. It promised healing to those who knew they were sick. We have to convince our hearers of the unwelcome diagnosis before we can expect them to welcome the news of the remedy.

The ancient man approached God (or even the gods) as the accused person approaches his judge. For the modern man, the roles are quite reversed. [Man] is the judge: God is in the dock [on trial]. He is quite a kindly judge; if God should have a reasonable defense for being the god who permits war, poverty, and disease, he is ready to listen to it. The trial may even end in God’s acquittal. But the important thing is that man is [is judge]  and God is [on trial].”

― C.S. Lewis, God in the Dock: Essays on Theology and Ethics,
from https://www.goodreads.com/work/quotes/1241712-god-in-the-dock


Last_Judgement,_by_Lucas_van_Leyden

Image “Last Judgement, by Lucas van Leyden” (1494-1533);
from Wikimedia Commons; public domain.

II. God will have the last say in judgment at the end. vs. 6

vs. 6 and out of the sanctuary came the seven angels with the seven plagues, clothed in pure, bright linen, with golden sashes around their chests. 

The judgments of God on unrepentant humanity come out of the very Holy of Holies in heaven. The last seven judgments are called “plagues” (plēgas). They are the final “blows, wounds, bruises” that God will inflict on humanity. The angels perform priestly functions as indicated by their clothing which is similar in appearance to Jesus’ clothing in Rev. 1.

III. The mercy seat in heaven will become the place from which God answers the prayers of His people for righteous judgment. vs. 7 

vs. 7 And one of the four living creatures gave to the seven angels seven golden bowls full of the wrath of God who lives forever and ever…

Mercy_Seat-wiki-public-dom.

The high priest before the Mercy Seat in the Most Holy Place
on the Day of Atonement. 
(public domain via Wikimedia Commons)

The four living creatures are an angelic order that watches over and exercises providential care for the people of God while they are on their earthly sojourn.

Seven Bowls

Image “Seven golden vials full of the wrath of God are distributed”; published under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license; found at https://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/image/L0029273.html

The Greek word for bowl is phialē—from which we derive the English word “vial.” It is a bowl which was used for offerings in the tabernacle worship. The contents of the bowls is the wrath of God. The Greek word is thymos—God’s settled disposition of anger against sin. God does not always pour out his judgment immediately upon deserving sinners. He stores it up until the right moment. 

He is identified as the one who lives unto the ages of  ages. So often, liberals claim that the Bible does not have a word for “eternity.” The Jews spoke of this age and the age to come. Eternity is “the ages of ages” since the age to come will know no end.

I heard an old preacher say the Bible doesn’t have a word meaning “eternity.” I am content to say along with the old preacher—”Isaiah says in 57:15—

For thus saith the High and Lofty One who inhabits eternity, whose name is Holy; I dwell in the high and holy place, with him also that is of a contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite ones.”

The old preacher concluded, We’ll live as long as God does and that’s good enough!” [KJV]

Our Lord decisively set the element of time in [suspension], and took His stand upon the fact and quality of life—life endless by its own nature. Of that eternal life He is Himself the guarantee—”Because I live, ye shall live also” (John 14:19). Therefore said St. Augustine, “Join thyself to the eternal God, and thou wilt be eternal.” (see ISBE, below.)

IV. God’s time for hearing prayers will end with His dispensing judgment on the unrepentant. vs. 8

vs. 8 …and the sanctuary was filled with smoke from the glory of God and from his power, and no one could enter the sanctuary until the seven plagues of the seven angels were finished.

Smoke is often used in the Old Testament in scenes where God appears in the form of a theophany. We do not really see the divine essence. We see a likeness which is suited for us as humans. It both reveals the divine character and conceals the divine essence. Exodus 33:19-23 states that concealment of the divine essence is necessary if we as humans are to be spared from destruction—

19 And [God] said, “I will make all my goodness pass before you and will proclaim before you my name ‘The Lord.’  [YHWH] And I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy. 20 But,” he said, “you cannot see my face, for man shall not see me and live.” 

21 And the Lord said, “Behold, there is a place by me where you shall stand on the rock, 22 and while my glory passes by I will put you in a cleft of the rock, and I will cover you with my hand until I have passed by. 23 Then I will take away my hand, and you shall see my back, but my face shall not be seen.”

moses-cleft-of-rock

Image from Blog by Ben

The glory of the Lord and the power of the Lord are said to cause the smoke to fill the temple. It seems to be symbolic of the anger of the Lord that burns against sin. The burning anger keeps anyone from entering the sanctuary until the seven final plagues are poured out on unrepentant humanity.

Next time we will move to Chapter 16.

Notes
(Commentaries and articles on which I rely without direct quotation) 

Beale, G. K. (2015). Revelation: a Shorter Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Kindle Edition.

ESV. (2001). Accessed 24 June 2020 from https://www.biblegateway.com

Hendriksen, William. More Than Conquerors: An Interpretation of the Book of Revelation. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition. (p. 125).

ISBE. (1915). “Eternal.” Accessed 16 January 2021 from https://biblehub.com/topical/e/eternal.htm

Johnson, A. F. (1982). Revelation in Expositor’s Bible Commentary, ed. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Johnson, D. E. (2001). Triumph of the Lamb: A Commentary on Revelation. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishers. Kindle Edition.

Kenner, C. (2000). The NIV Application Commentary: Revelation. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Academic.

KJV. accessed 16 January 2021 from https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Isaiah+57%3A15&version=AKJV

Lawson, S. J. (2014). “Preaching the Wrath of God.” from TableTalk magazine. Accessed 12 January 2021 from https://www.ligonier.org/learn/articles/preaching-wrath-god/

Morris, Leon. (1987). Revelation in Tyndale New Testament Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

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© 2021 C. Richard Barbare All Rights Reserved

Revelation 15: Our All-wise and Loving God always Comes to our Aid

Revelation 15:1-4

Image above is of Christ as Pantocrator, Dome, Church of the Holy Sepulcher, Jerusalem, Israel. taken by Oleg Moro and used under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

As we saw in the last bog post, the application of chapter 15 to our lives is —

We look back at our suffering and persecution in the past as permitted by the loving providence of our all-wise God; and we also look forward in hope to the time when all things unjust will be set to right by that same all-wise God.

This Chapter reminds us not to place faith in empires and armies. God alone can keep us from an evil end!

I. The glories of heaven await us no matter what our lot in life is here on earth. 

vs. 2 And I saw what appeared to be a sea of glass mingled with fire—and also those who had conquered the beast and its image and the number of its name, standing [upon] the sea of glass with harps of God in their hands. [ESV]

I like the poem “Go Down, Death” by James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938) These lines below are excerpts from a Funeral Sermon.

Go Down Death

Johnson sought to capture the cadence and rhythm of black preaching he heard as a young man, but without using “the misspellings and orthographic tricks often employed in representing black vernacular speech.” He wrote the sermons in poetic form in the book, God’s Trombones (see Johnson, J. W., below).

When our life on this earth closes, we have a great future ahead of us. We may not have that many earthly possessions or money now, but our retirement plan is out of this world, literally!

Note that John saw what looked like a glass sea which had been mixed with fire. “It is a scene of worship, and its imagery is suitable for depicting the majesty and brilliance of God, which the sea of glass is reflecting in a virtual symphony of color. No further symbolic significance than this needs to be sought here.”  (see Johnson A. F., below). John also saw the victorious ones standing upon the glassy/fiery-like sea. 

The righteous have been removed just prior to the pouring out of God’s wrath. Revelation 14-19 are not long drawn out events. All events at the very end occur one after another. They are spread out for study purposes. God will pour out his wrath on the unrepentant world, but never on his church. I Thessalonians 1:9-10 and 5:9 make it clear that God will never pour out his wrath on his church—

I Thess. 1:9 For they themselves report concerning us the kind of reception we had among you, and how you turned to God from idols to serve the living and true God, 10 and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead, Jesus who delivers us from the wrath to come.

I Thess. 5:9 For God has not destined us for wrath, but to obtain salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ, 10 who died for us so that whether we are awake or asleep we might live with him. 11 Therefore encourage one another and build one another up, just as you are doing. [ESV; emphasis mine]

Michael Card captures this chapter well in his album “Unveiled Hope” about the teaching of Revelation. 

The Greek is literally, “They had harps of God—the harp is the instrument that is most used in the Old Testament. The harps are given to the saints in heaven. It is often associated with prophecy. In Greek the musical instrument is kithara a lyre. “The harp was the national instrument of the Hebrews, and was well known throughout Asia. Moses assigns its invention to Jubal during the antediluvian period. ( Genesis 4:21 ) Josephus records that the harp had ten strings, and that it was played with the plectrum [a pick]. Sometimes it was smaller having only eight strings, and was usually played with the fingers.” (see Smith’s Bible Dictionary, below)

II. God will deliver us safely to heaven because He is sovereign over all our circumstances. 


God can Save us from Death

It was Christmas Eve 1875 and Ira Sankey was traveling on a Delaware River steamboat when he was recognized by some of the passengers. His picture had been in the newspaper because he was the song leader for the famous evangelist D. L. Moody. They asked him to sing one of his own hymns, but Sankey demurred, saying that he preferred to sing William B. Bradbury’s hymn, “Savior Like a Shepherd Lead Us.”

As he sang, one of the stanzas began, “We are Thine; do Thou befriend us. Be the Guardian of our way.” When he finished, a man stepped from the shadows and asked, “Did you ever serve in the Union Army?” “Yes,” Mr. Sankey answered, “in the spring of 1860.”

Can you remember if you were doing picket duty on a bright, moonlit night in 1862?”

“Yes,” Mr. Sankey answered, very much surprised.

“So did I, but I was serving in the Confederate army. When I saw you standing at your post, I thought to myself, ‘That fellow will never get away alive.’ I raised my musket and took aim. I was standing in the shadow, completely concealed, while the full light of the moon was falling upon you. At that instant, just as a moment ago, you raised your eyes to heaven and began to sing… ‘Let him sing his song to the end,’ I said to myself, ‘I can shoot him afterwards.’ He’s my victim at all events, and my bullet cannot miss him.’

But the song you sang then was the song you sang just now. I heard the words perfectly: ‘We are Thine; do Thou befriend us. Be the Guardian of our way.’ Those words stirred up many memories. I began to think of my childhood and my God-fearing mother. She had many times sung that song to me. When you had finished your song, it was impossible for me to take aim again. I thought, ‘The Lord who is able to save that man from certain death must surely be great and mighty.’ And my arm of its own accord dropped limp at my side.” (from Our Daily Bread devotional.)


Mariam's Song 1024px-Schnorr_von_Carolsfeld_Bibel_in_Bildern_1860_051

Miriam’s Song by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld (1794–1872).
Public Domain Image taken by McLeod Gallery

vss. 3-4 3 And they sing the song of Moses, the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying,

“Great and amazing are your deeds,
O Lord God the Almighty!
Just and true are your ways,
O King of the nations!
4
Who will not fear, O Lord,
and glorify your name?
For you alone are holy.
All nations will come
and worship you,
for your righteous acts have been revealed.”

It seems two songs are sung since they “sing the song of Moses and the song of the Lamb.” However, in fact only one song is heard by the readers. Maybe the two songs have been merged into one. The background to the stanza in verse 3 is definitely the Exodus. The actual wording here may have been drawn from the synagogue and/or early church liturgy (see Johnson, A. F., below). 

Florentinischer_Meister_um_1300_001

Image of “Christ as Pantokrator” from Wikipedia Commons; in the public domain.

I see an echo of Deuteronomy 33:26 in John’s words in Revelation 15:4. “There is no one like the God of [Israel], who rides through the heavens to your help, through the skies in his majesty.”

Feuerbach_Mirjam_2Image to the right is “Miriam the Prophetess” by Anselm Feuerbach (1829- 1880); Public Domain image from WikiMedia Commons; photo by Arianna. →

“Almighty” is pantokratór = One who holds unrestricted power exercising absolute dominion. This term is still prevalent in Orthodox Churches. Jesus is always pictured in the dome of the Church as the icon with Christ’s arms outspread over His people. (See the photograph above.)

The “not” in this question indicates John expects the “no” answer—”Shall [anyone] not fear you and glorify your name, O Lord?” Answer expected, “No! Everyone will fear and glorify your name, O Lord!”

“For” occurs three time in this verse. Each gives the reasons why there is no one who does not fear the Lord and glorify his name.

(1) For He alone is holy (“righteous, pious, and holy”);
(2) For all nations will come before him and worship him;
(3) For His righteous acts of deliverance have been manifested in behalf of his people.


D. L. Moody’s Deathbed Scene

God does not abandon His people when death comes. D. L. Moody pronounced words which are often quoted today when a loved one dies —

“Some day you will read in the papers that D. L. Moody, of East Northfield, is dead,” he had said. “Don’t you believe a word of it! At that moment I shall be more alive than I am now. I shall have gone up higher, that is all — out of this old clay tenement into a house that is immortal; a body that death cannot touch, that sin cannot taint, a body fashioned like unto His glorious body.”

He wrote his and every Christian’s obituary with these words. 

On his deathbed, his doctor was administering heart stimulation shots to bring him back from sinking again into a coma. At the end he begged them to stop the shots — 

It seemed as though he saw beyond the veil, for he exclaimed: “This is my triumph; this is my coronation day! I have been looking forward to it for years.” Then his face lit up, and he said, in a voice of joyful rapture: “Dwight! Irene! — I see the children’s faces,” referring to the two little grandchildren God had taken from his life in the past year.

“Earth recedes; Heaven opens before me. I have been beyond the gates. God is calling. Don’t call me back.
(from D. L. Moody’s Biography by his son Will Moody, public domain.)


God takes his people to himself when death comes to them. All believers have their triumph and crowning day! We pray for healing. God hears us. However, sometimes He gives ultimate healing—taking us out of suffering, persecution, and death into His loving arms in heaven!

Next time on to Revelation 15:5-8.

Notes
(Commentaries on which I rely often without direct quotation) 

Beale, G. K. (2015). Revelation: a Shorter Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Kindle Edition.

ESV. (2001). Accessed 24 June 2020 from https://www.biblegateway.com

Hendriksen, William. More Than Conquerors: An Interpretation of the Book of Revelation. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition. (p. 125).

Johnson, A. F. (1982). Revelation in Expositor’s Bible Commentary, ed. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Johnson, D. E. (2001). Triumph of the Lamb: A Commentary on Revelation. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishers. Kindle Edition.

Johnson, J. W. (1926). “Go Down, Death” from God’s Trombones. Accessed 3 January 2021 from https://allpoetry.com/Go-Down-Death

Kenner, C. (2000). The NIV Application Commentary: Revelation. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Academic.

Morris, Leon. (1987). Revelation in Tyndale New Testament Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

Smith’s Bible Dictionary. (1860). Retrieved 3 January 2021 from https://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionaries/smiths-bible-dictionary/harp.html [Public Domain]

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© 2021 C. Richard Barbare All Rights Reserved

Revelation 15—God’s Justice will Come!

Revelation 15:1-4

The image above “The army of Pharaoh are drowned in the Red Sea” in Duomo, San Gimignano,” photograph  by Livio andronico 2013; Licensed under CC-BY-SA-4.0

The Broader Context of Chapter 15—

Looking back: In chapter 7 the 144,000 is symbolic of the people of God who were sealed before the judgment began. This is the period of the “last days”—the days of Christ’s Death, Resurrection, and Ascension; and continuing through Christ’s Second Coming. In chapters 8-10 God visits the earth with warning judgments. Chapters 11-13 are interludes giving the church the reasons why she suffers so much at the hands of sinful men. Chapter 14 is an index to the final judgment. 

Looking forward: Chapters 15 and 16 set forth the means of the final judgment—7 bowls of wrath. Chapters 17 and 18 describe the specific details of the final judgment. Chapter 19 integrates the final judgment with the Second Coming of Christ.

Connection of Chapter 15 to 16 through 19

The Context of Chapter 15 —

Chapter 15 is an interpretive interlude to chapter 16. The first section of the chapter (vs. 2-4) deals with the victors over the beast who have been caught up to be with the Lord. The second section (vs. 5-8) deals with the seven angels bearing the bowls of judgment. “Chapter 15 is tied closely to chapter 16. Both deal with the seven last plagues of God’s wrath. One is preparatory and interpretive, the other descriptive.” (See Johnson, A. F. below)

The application of chapter 15 to our lives is —

We can look back at our suffering and persecution in the past as permitted by the loving providence of an all-wise God; and then, we can look forward in hope to the time when all things unjust will be set to right by that same all-wise God. 

I am reminded of Rudyard Kipling’s poem, which I memorized and delivered it in Freshman Speech. We must be reminded constantly anti-Christian empires always fall. Like the Titanic, thought at the time to be an unsinkable ship when launched, all earthly empires will eventually fall. “Recessional” By Rudyard Kipling, 1897 on the occasion of the diamond jubilee of Queen Victoria. He strikes a warning in the midst of the celebration of the British public. Video is of a reading 1:48. The words are printed below.

Recessional

This Chapter reminds us not to place faith in empires and armies. God alone can keep us from our enemies!

I. The Seven plagues will bring an end to persecuting powers throughout the entire age of the Church. 

vs. 1 Then I saw another sign in heaven, great and amazing, seven angels with seven plagues, which are the last, for with them the wrath of God is finished. [ESV; emphasis mine]

By calling it “another” great sign John connects it with the vision of the heavenly woman and the dragon who wars against her and her child 12:1, 3 (see Johnson, D. E. below). This verse is a introductory verse to both chapters 15 and 16. There are two other “signs (sēmeion) in the heavens” in this part of the book (12-22). They are in 12:1, 3—(1) the woman clothed with the sun; and (2) the dragon. The word “another” is in Greek “another of the same kind.”

seven-bowls

The Giving of the Seven Bowls of Wrath
The First Six Plagues, Matthias Gerung, c. 1531

Two stories are illustrative as I think about God’s judgment throughout the age of the church. 

An umpire named Babe Pinelli once called Babe Ruth out on strikes. When the crowd booed with sharp disapproval at the call, the legendary Ruth turned to the umpire with disdain and said, “There’s 40,000 people here who know that the last pitch was a ball, tomato head.” Suspecting that the umpire would erupt with anger, the coaches and players braced themselves for Ruth’s ejection. However, the cool headed Pinelli replied, “Maybe so, Babe, but mine is the only opinion that counts.” (Lou Nicholes – Author/Missionary).

God’s Word gives us warning about trusting in our or society’s thinking instead of what God has declared to be true. His truth alone is what matters!

Just before the death of actor W. C. Fields, a friend visited Fields’ hospital room and was surprised to find him thumbing through a Bible. Asked what he was doing with a Bible, Fields replied, “I’m looking for loopholes.” (Source Unknown).

Once our life is drawing to a close, we must realize there are no loopholes in God’s Word. We ought to live each day as if it were our last. Luther once said, “There are only two days on my calendar—today and that day!”

II. The Seven plagues will bring an end to all persecuting armies and nations at the very end.

The bowls will be also the seven last plagues because with them God’s wrath is then completed. The Greek reads, “Seven angels having seven plagues, the last ones, because in them the wrath of God was completed.” The “because”  gives explanation of the reason for the emphasis upon these plagues as “the last ones.” The phrase “in them” indicates “by means of these last seven plagues God’s wrath is brought to completion.” The past tense is used because the event is so certain that it can be placed in the past tense. The passive voice indicates an implied divine agency in the event.

One of the first gospel illustrations that ever made a real impression upon Harry Ironside’s young heart which he heard a preacher tell when he was less than nine years old.

It was of pioneers who were making their way across one of the central states to a distant place that had been opened up for homesteading. They traveled in covered wagons drawn by oxen, and progress was necessarily slow. One day they were horrified to note a long line of smoke in the west, stretching for miles across the prairie, and soon it was evident that the dried grass was burning fiercely and coming toward them rapidly. They had crossed a river the day before but it would be impossible to go back to that before the flames would be upon them. One man only seemed to have understanding as to what could be done. He gave the command to set fire to the grass behind them. Then when a space was burned over, the whole company moved back upon it.

As the flames roared on toward them from the west, a little girl cried out in terror, “Are you sure we shall not all be burned up?” The leader replied, “My child, the flames cannot reach us here, for we are standing where the fire has already been!”

The fires of God’s judgment burned themselves out on Christ, and all who are in Christ are safe forever, for they are now standing where the fire has already burned. (H. A. Ironside, Illustrations of Bible Truth, Moody Press, 1945, pp. 34-35).

This last set of plagues do describe events throughout the age of the Church when empires fall. They also telescope us to the last judgment when all powers opposed to Christ will be vanquished from the battlefield!

Christ and two Thieves

The only safe place in that Day is to be found believing in Jesus Christ as our Lord and Savior!

I Corinthians 16:22 If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema*; Maranatha!‡

* Anathema = in Greek “to be accursed” or “dedicated to destruction.”
‡ Maranatha! = “Our Lord, come!” in Aramaic 

I echo Paul’s words, “Maranatha!” Our Lord, Come!

Next time on to the 2-4 verses.

Notes (Commentaries on which I rely sometimes without direct quotation) 

Beale, G. K. (2015). Revelation: a Shorter Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Kindle Edition.

ESV. (2001). Accessed 24 June 2020 from https://www.biblegateway.com

Hendriksen, William. More Than Conquerors: An Interpretation of the Book of Revelation. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition. (p. 125).

Johnson, A. F. (1982). Revelation in Expositor’s Bible Commentary, ed. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Johnson, D. E. (2001). Triumph of the Lamb: A Commentary on Revelation. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishers. Kindle Edition.

Kenner, C. (2000). The NIV Application Commentary: Revelation. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Academic.

Morris, Leon. (1987). Revelation in Tyndale New Testament Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

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© 2021 C. Richard Barbare All Rights Reserved