The Black Horse and its Rider: Revelation Six, Part 3

Revelation 6:5-6

6:5 When he opened the third seal, I heard the third living creature say, “[Go]!” And I looked, and behold, a black horse! And its rider had a pair of scales in his hand.

Image “Plague, war and famine” by Sadler above from WikiMedia Commons.

As Conquest leads the way in the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, War follows, and now Economic Hardship. High prices for food that is in short supply always follows war.

I. The Black Rider’s Equipment

The Third Rider’s equipment is a scales (zygos = a balance beam scale; word also translated “yoke”.) which indicates something to do with the economy of the day.

Famine (2)

Beale says, “In the ancient world, a pair of scales stood for a time of [severe economic hardship], as in such times food was rationed out by scales” (see Beale, p. 128, below). 

Very careful measurement is required due to scarcity and high price of food. This clarifies the myth of the Pax Romana (Roman Peace). Rome promised prosperity and peace for all. Yet it delivered it only to the elites of society. (see Keener, below).

The horse’s black color symbolizes scarcity and bad tidings (cf. a “black” day = a day of calamity).


Ancient Roman denarius coin of Marcus Junius Brutus (circa 54 BC). Vintage etching circa mid 19th century.

6:6 And I heard what seemed to be a voice in the midst of the four living creatures, saying, “A quart of wheat for a denarius, and three quarts of barley for a denarius, and do not harm the oil and wine!”

The source of the voice is not given. The text says the the voice came from the vicinity of (en mesos) the four living creatures. It is obviously a divine decree from Christ himself.  (see Beale, p. 128, below). Christ’s decree limits Caesar then and it still limits governments in modern times!

II. This is the picture of food scarcity and high inflation due to economic hardships following war.

A denarius was the amount paid to a man for one day’s work. A choinix was a measure that was close to a quart. A quart of wheat was the amount one man consumed in one day.

Barley is inferior, and a man would usually feed this to his animals or to his slaves. However, if he could only buy a quart of wheat, he could not feed his family from it. If he wanted to feed his family, he would have to buy the barley. This was less nutritious and would lead to malnutrition.


Wall illustration from Pompeii showing a Roman banquet.

“John elaborates on the inevitable outcome of Rome’s greed and exploitation, expressed here with especially poignant imagery: a pair of scales” (see Fee, p. 94, below). God is bringing punishment upon Rome for persecuting His church. Economic hardship reduces the amount of grain (in the far reaches of the Empire) that could be harvested and shipped back to Rome.

Most of the land owning elites in the colonies (i.e. Asia Minor) made the most money by selling oil and wine to the elites of Rome. However, Rome was in need of grain to feed its masses—the hoi polloi—to keep down rebellion.

The Emperor Domitian in A.D. 92 ordered half of the vineyards in Asia Minor to be cutgrape-vines-separated-road-olive-trees-tomaresca-tenuta-bocca-di-lupo-pictured-row-winery-101966722 down and the ground sown with wheat. Rome needed to keep its masses quiet and dependent. However, this order was never carried out. (pictured on the right, olive trees are side-by-side with grape vines.) 

The oil (elion = olive oil) and the wine are considered to be luxuries by some commentators. They reason that these are plentiful in times of scarcity because there is no money with which to buy them. It is all a man can do to just keep his family fed.

Oil and wine were necessities in the Mediterranean area. How could one make bread without oil? Water was possibly polluted and would be dangerous to drink without having wine mixed in it. No person would drink wine undiluted except hard-core alcoholics wanting to get drunk — Bacchus cult members. “Eat drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die” was their mantra. (see Thomas and Macchia below.)


The Jewish practices called for 4:1 ratio of water to wine. Some even diluted it 10:1. The alcohol would have killed the bacteria in the water. So who could afford to drink polluted water without wine? These two are necessities. 

The elites made more money from oil and wine than from wheat. The prohibition against harming these two items are made by Christ Himself.

III. Two Biblical passages important for us today in regard to food supply.

A. Genesis 8:20-22 guarantees regular seasons — after the flood — rainbow

20 …Noah built an altar to the Lord and took some of every clean animal and some of every clean bird and offered burnt offerings on the altar. 21 And when the Lord smelled the pleasing aroma, the Lord said in his heart, “I will never again curse the ground because of man, for the intention of man’s heart is evil from his youth. Neither will I ever again strike down every living creature as I have done. 22 While the earth remains, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night, shall not cease.” (ESV; emphasis mine.)

Verse 22 is most instructive. God swears that the seasons will continue so that crops can be grown. Wars end, killing ceases, and famines come to a close at God’s appointed time! In all circumstances God is sovereign over the food supply! 

B. The small minor prophet, Habakkuk is important for those who seek to do God’s will under the threat of War. 

Note Habakkuk’s Prayer and Paean of Praise in his time of need! 

Habakkuk in chapter one prays for God to deal with injustice that is widespread in Judah at the time. The Northern Kingdom had already been exiled and pagan populations had been settled in the midst of those who were left behind. Judah did not heed the warning God gave through the Assyrian White, Red, and Black horses that rode through their northern neighbors’ territory. However, Habakkuk almost loses heart when he hears about how God is going to answer his prayer for justice in Judah.

1:6 … behold, I am raising up the Chaldeans [Babylonians], that bitter and hasty nation, who march through the breadth of the earth, to seize dwellings not their own.Habakkuk-title

The White, Red, and Black Horses of the Babylonians are to ride over Judah and punish injustice. 

Habakkuk ends his little book with hope for the ultimate future.

2:14 For the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the Lord as the waters cover the sea.

In the meantime, Habakkuk takes his stand and centers his thoughts on God! He doesn’t look to government or the military to help. He looks to God. 

Though the fig tree should not blossom,
nor fruit be on the vines,
the produce of the olive fail
and the fields yield no food,
the flock be cut off from the fold
and there be no herd in the stalls,
yet I will rejoice in the Lord;
I will take joy in the God of my salvation.
God, the Lord, is my strength… .

Right response, Habakkuk! Right response for us today!  

In the West, we have plenty. I believe we ought to enjoy the fruits of our labors. However, there is a warning in the black horse for us as well. Billy Graham in Approaching Hoofbeats: The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse warns us that if we do not heed God’s warnings to us “our lifestyle may spread itself out before us in judgment.” We ought always to be mindful of the needs of others. (see Graham below.)

Next time, the pale horse. 


Beale, G. K. (2015). Revelation: A Shorter Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Kindle Edition.

Fee, Gordon D.(2010). Revelation (New Covenant Commentary Series) Portland, OR: Cascade Books, an imprint of Wipf and Stock Publishers. Kindle Edition.

Graham, Billy. (1984). Approaching Hoofbeats: The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. [original publisher: Word Books, later acquired by] Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Pub.

Keener, C. S. (2000). Revelation in The NIV Application Commentary series. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. Kindle edition.

Thomas and Macchia. (2016). Revelation: Two Horizons New Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. Eerdmans Pub. Co. Kindle edition.

© 2020 C. Richard Barbare All Rights Reserved

The Red Horse and its Rider: Revelation Six, Part 2

Revelation 6:3-4

3 When he opened the second seal, I heard the second living creature say, “Go!” 4 And out came another horse, bright red. Its rider was permitted to take peace from the earth, so that people should slay one another, and he was given a great sword.

I. Christ is sovereign over war and violence. 

The key to discovering the meaning of all the riders is found in what they have in their hands. The rider’s sword is the machaira. In modern Greek the word is used of a knife. In the New Testament it is often used of the Roman short sword (gladius in Latin; from Légionnaire_romain_Ier_siècle_av_JCwhich “gladiator” is derived) The gladius is pictured left with a Legionnaire’s hand on its hilt. From this picture, one can derive an idea of its size and length. It was forged for easy, lethal hand-to-hand combat. It was the standard Roman battle implement. 

This horse is red, fiery red. It speaks of warfare and bloodshed (II Kings 3: 22-23). This rider takes peace from the earth. It makes possible war (civil and international), terrorism, and all kinds of violence.

In each of the cases of the riders, it is said that something was ‘granted’ or ‘given to him’. Horseman with SwordThe word is a past tense passive verb didomi (“I give”). The passive voice indicates an implied divine agency. God gives the permission for the following to take place. 

He opened the second seal. He gave the sword to the rider. This introduces us to the “problem of evil.” A problem that has plagued theologians and philosophers since time immemorial.

II. All evil serves God’s purposes though we do not understand how.

Romans 11:33-36 applies to the problem of evil.

33 Oh, the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and how inscrutable his ways! 34  “For who has known the mind of the Lord, or who has been his counselor?” 35 “Or who has given a gift to him
that he might be repaid?” 36 For from him and through him and to him are all things. To him be glory forever. Amen. (ESV emphasis mine.)

R. C. Sproul says this about evil and our understanding of it —

“I don’t think God has revealed to us a full and final answer to the problem of evil and suffering. However, that doesn’t mean that He’s been silent on the issue. Scripture does give us some helpful guidelines.

(1) God is not capricious or arbitrary. He does not act irrationally, nor does He show or permit violence to no purpose. That doesn’t mean we always know why a particular evil occurs at a given place or time. (see Sproul below.)

Let me add —

a) Judgment is not God’s preferred work. Isaiah 28:21 (ESV)

21 For the Lord will rise up as on Mount Perazim; as in the Valley of Gibeon he will be roused; to do his deed—strange is his deed! and to work his work—alien is his work!

b) Mercy is God’s preferred work. Psalm 145:9 (KJV).

21 The Lord is good to all: and his tender mercies are over all his works.

(2) “…evil is not ultimate. Christianity never denies the horror of evil, but neither does it regard evil as having any power above or equal to God. Scripture’s final word on evil is triumph. Creation groans as it awaits its final redemption, but this groaning is not futile. Over all creation stands the resurrected Christ—Christus Victor [the Victorious Christ]—who has triumphed over the powers of evil and will make all things new. “That means that when inexplicable disasters occur, we must say with Martin Luther, ‘Let God be God.'” (see Sproul below.)

Left: Lady Justice is presented with a blindfold; supposed idea of American courts.
Right: Lady Justice is pictured eyes wide-opened.
God’s justice is always meted out eyes wide-opened! 

III. The Red Horse rides in our world today. 

War, civil and international, is a fact of life in our world. September 11, 2001 brought this Red Horse to America’s doorstep. We had had terrorist incidents before this one. Now we have war—The War on Terror. Wherever we see war, civil or international, the Red Horse is riding.

I have visited Manhattan and have seen the Trade Towers footprint before they built the memorial there. I have been also to Oklahoma City and have seen the memorial there to dead at the Murrah Federal Building bombing. (Both pictured below from WikiMedia.)


The Case of Jehu from the past

It is difficult for Christians to deal with such cruelty of the Red Horse sent by God. How can God be sovereign over war and still be holy and just in all He does? Christ opened the second seal and unleashed war and violence to punish those who persecute His Church. Christ holds all accountable who commit injustice.

If you doubt read Jehu’s story, King of Northern Tribes of Israel in 841–814 BC. Jehu was commissioned to deal with Ahab’s idolatry and persecution of believers in the Northern Kingdom of Samaria. (II Kings 9-10) Elisha the prophet sends a proxy to anoint Jehu King of Samaria and charge him to prosecute holy war against Ahab’s dynasty. Jehu engaged in indiscriminate murder shedding innocent blood. (see II Kings 10:12-14.) God punished him for his excesses by allowing his kingdom to suffer war from the outside. (see II Kings 10:32-36). See bas-relief below shows Jehu bowing in submission as a vassal of Assyria.

Jehu bowing to Assyrian King

The king bowing is King Jehu of Israel, a man found in the Bible. This bas-relief of Jehu is the oldest surviving depiction of an Israelite. …Jehu brought his tribute to Shalmaneser III in around 841 BC. The inscription near the panel with Jehu can be translated: “The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears”

Don’t forget God’s justice is at work amid war and violence. His delays in meting out justice are not His denials. 

Though the [grist] mills of God grind slowly,
yet they grind exceeding small;
Though with patience He stands waiting,
with exactness grinds He all. (see Retribution below.)

We can and must trust in God to bring about justice in all His acts in history! This is the lesson of the second seal and the Red Horse for God’s people.

Next time we will move on to the Black Horse and its Rider.


Retribution. (n.d.). Poem by Friedrich von Logau (1604–1655) translated by Henry W. Longfellow. Accessed 16 January 2020 from

Sproul, R. C. (2013). “Answering Evil”. Accessed 11 January 2020 from

© 2020 C. Richard Barbare All Rights Reserved

The Rider of the White Horse: Revelation Six, Part 1

Revelation 6
The Scroll Seals Broken

Image above is from Gustave Doré – Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, 1865.

There are three main images in this chapter:

1. The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse vss. 1-8
2. The Souls under the Altar
3. The Day of Wrath 

We deal in this post with the White Horse and its Rider.

Vs. 1 Now I watched when the Lamb opened one of the seven seals, and I heard one of the four living creatures say with a voice like thunder, “Go!” (see my explanation below for this translation.) 

The question arises as to the identification of the one who is addressed by the word “come” (in most translations). 

(1) Some think that the command is addressed to the Coming Lord himself. The invitation expresses the desire of creation to be redeemed.
(2) Other commentators think that the invitation is addressed to John. Hence, the addition “and see” by the KJV.
*(3) Most modern commentators see this as an address to the four horsemen. I agree with this 3rd option.

Four Horsemen

Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, an 1887 painting by Viktor Vasnetsov. Depicted from left to right are Pestilence, Famine, War, and Conquest. The Lamb is visible at the top.

The word [“come” in the ESV] is erchomai, which can mean either “come” or “go” depending upon the context. This is the command from the Living Creatures to the Four Horsemen to begin their ride. If the Creatures were beyond the Horsemen, they would say “come.” If the Living Creatures were behind the Horsemen,  the Living Creatures would say “go.” That is why I opt for translating this as “Go!” These Living Creatures—an Angelic order representing all of creation—never leave their close proximity to the throne of God.

We can draw two lessons from this first horseman’s ride:

I. This command comes from God’s throne room!

There is nothing inconsistent with the justice of God meted out to those who persecute His people. God is not a “divine Barney the Dinosaur” (“I love you; you love me” type). God’s love is true and genuine, but so is his wrath. If one of His people is harmed, God will mete out justice! “Vengeance is mine, I will repay, says the Lord.” (Romans 12:19 ESV).

In any case, the angels that represent all creation are eager to see the Horsemen’s program begin and reach its conclusion because it will mean the redemption of the earth as a place of habitation for redeemed humanity. It will mean suffering for the created order, but it will conclude with glory for God’s people and a renewed creation.

Christians will suffer as well since they are a part of the created order. Note Matthew 5:45b “For [God] makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust.” However, we can be sure that the wrath of God will never fall on His people!

vs. 2 And I looked, and behold, a white horse! And its rider had a bow, and a crown was given to him, and he came out conquering, and to conquer.

The rider of this horse is much disputed.
(1) Some think that it is Christ himself.
(2) Others think it is Antichrist.
(3) Some see it as military conquest.
*(4) Others think
it symbolizes conquest in general.

white-horse-2I think it is wrong to view this white horseman as a person. All of the other riders symbolize abstracts. This one too is an abstract. It is also wrong to view it as military conquest since the second seal deals with war, etc. It is better to take this rider as symbolic of conquest by whichever means—political, economic, etc. Sun Tsu, in The Art of War, said, “The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting.”(emphasis mine.) After all, many different interests go into the decision for conquest. The White Horseman leads the other three.

“The rider of the white horse could well be called Conquest. It is appropriate that he lead this terrible cavalry of violence, famine, and death, for the expansionist aspirations of rulers precipitate military conflict and scarcity of such resources sources as food and medicine, leading to malnutrition, starvation, epidemic, and death.” (see Johnson below.)

The first rider has a war bow. And he is given a victor’s crown, the twisted laurel stephanposbranches with leaves given in athletic contests (stephanos). In Rev. 19, our Lord wears kingly crowns, many diadems (diadema).

The second verb in the last phrase is the present tense of nikao (Greek for “conquer or victory”; used to name the tennis shoes, by the way, meaning “winners wear these shoes!”). It is used to describe the manner of rider’s going out. The first rider goes forth in a conquering manner in order to make fresh conquests.


a “Roman Triumph” given to a victorious general riding on a white-horse-driven chariot; public domain; by Jacques Grasset de Saint-Sauveur (1757-1810)

Because of the white color, many see this as an allusion to Rev. 19 where Christ returns on a white horse. The only similarity between the two riders is the color white. It was associated with victory in ancient Rome. (see Roman Triumph pictured above.) This goes along with the other symbols in chapter six. Satanic forces will be unleashed throughout the last days which will lead nations to seek to conquer the world through deception and error and bring suffering upon the earth.

The so-called Pax Romana was a fiction. Rome did not bring peace and prosperity for all. Rome brought enforced peace for the enrichment of the elites in Rome and elites in the captured territories who cooperated with Rome. Poor people sought the patronage of rich men to eke out a living (see Johnson below). 

That Christians are affected by the fallout from the Four Horsemen is true. However, I agree with Johnson’s view that the horsemen are all sent for the purpose primarily to punish and judge the “earth-dweller” persecutors of Christ’s Church. “It seems better to view the primary targets of the destructive forces symbolized by the four horsemen as rebellious, covenant-breaking humanity, ‘those who dwell on the earth,’ rather than the faithful and suffering church.” (see Johnson below). 

II. We need to remember since God sends this horseman, He is sovereign over conquest!

God hears our prayers

When I visited and preached in Romania in the early 1990s, Christians told me of their prayers for deliverance from the repressive communist regime. The secular press in the West reported “they held candle light vigils.” Believers told me they had to carry candles to light their way at night since it was all the artificial light they could afford and there were no street lights. Their real business was not to light candles but to pray. God heard those prayers! 

Nothing can touch us without our heavenly Father’s permission. I don’t understand why He permits evil in His providence, but I would rather have Him sovereign over it, but not the author of it, rather than evil affecting me at random without Him! He will explain it all when we see him face to face. 

Conquest in the World Today

In the Far East there are several regimes that are intent on conquest of their own peoples, economic prosperity, and acquisition of new territory. They are persecuting Christians with a vengeance. Leviathan states must have no rivals for authority! 

“A new video from Voice of the Martyrs (VOM) dramatizes the true story of a North Korean man named Sang-chul whose life was changed when he met a pastor in China. This pastor, Han Chung Ryeol, [who lived in Changbai, China] risked…his life to bring the gospel to people living in what is arguably the most oppressive country in the world. …If someone reports you have even ‘glanced at’ a Bible, you and all your relatives will be arrested and sent to a concentration camp for years. To speak the name of God can lead to soldiers coming in the night, says Sang-chul. And there will be no trial. No journalists will write about you, and no one will ever dare ask where you have gone.


Note: Changbai, China, and its close proximity to N. Korea. (Google Maps)

“Sang-chul eventually put his trust in God and persuaded Pastor Han to give him a Bible, despite the danger. Over time, Sang-chul even took the risk of sharing his new-found hope with his wife and his best friend.

“Then in the summer of 2016, Sang-chul says he heard that the North Korean government was honoring some assassins for killing a ‘terrorist missionary’ in Changbai. He immediately knew it was Pastor Han who had died. CBN News reports that the pastor was found in the Changbai Mountains with multiple knife and axe wounds. He died at age 49, leaving behind his wife and two children. (see Pastor Han below.)


God will punish those who seek to destroy His Church. Maybe not today, or tomorrow, or 5 years from now, but the White Horse will eventually ride over them and this, and other regimes who persecute His people, will be conquered by others and punished.

We can labor for God knowing that Christ has said, “…I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.” — Matthew 16:18 ESV emphasis mine.

Next time the Red Horse and its Rider.


Johnson, D. E. (2001). Triumph of the Lamb: A Commentary on Revelation. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing. Kindle Edition.

Pastor Han Martyred. (2019). “North Korean Man Shares Story of Pastor Killed Because of the Gospel.” Retrieved 9 January 2020 from

© 2020 C. Richard Barbare All Rights Reserved


The Basic Structure of Revelation 6:1—16:21

Overview of the Four Series of Seven Judgments

G. K. Beale makes the best sense, in my opinion, of the Seals, Trumpets, Thunders, and Bowls of Judgments. (see Beale, below.)

Rather than attempting to restate Beale’s argument, I will quote his conclusion succinctly and then make the argument as we go through each separate set of judgments.

“We begin with the understanding that John is relating what he saw in a series of visions, and he is doing so in the order in which he saw them.

“The order in which he saw things is not necessarily the historical chronological order in which those things will happen. This is clear from the fact the text shows he is speaking of the same events in different visions, but sometimes either not relating them in exactly the same order, or telling of different visions…to express the same reality.

“Part of the reason for this is that, in general, the plagues recur throughout history, rather than being one-time historical events, hence there is not an exact correspondence in every detail.” (see Beale, pp. 24-25, below; emphasis mine.)

I offer the following diagram to illustrate what Beale is saying. Begin at the bottom and work your way up. Each is cyclical and not necessarily chronological. 

Recapulation of Four Series of Sevens

The Seals cover the same judgments as the Trumpets, the Thunders, and the Bowls. Dr. Michael Kruger, President of Reformed Theological Seminary, refers to these visions by way of analogy. He says they are like the different camera angles at an American Football Game. (See Hebrews – Revelation, below.)

Camera Angles Analogy

By the way, the first televised Football game in America was in 1939. They used two cameras. Today, “each game is a major production, with broadcasters deploying 12 to 20 cameras and 150 to 200 employees for regular-season contests.” (see Impact of Television, below.)

“CBS Sports [debuted] new technology in its suite of 70 cameras being used to film the 2016 [SuperBowl]; …only 40 video cameras were used to capture the 2015 Super Bowl. (That’s 75 percent more cameras, if you didn’t want to do the math.) Old favorites—like the SkyCam—are back with some impressive updates, and totally new technology is also readying for its debut. (see Superbowl 2016, below.)

Looking for a Collage of the End Times from Different Angles

So we are not looking for a chronological map of the Revelation. The various visions in Revelation are different “camera angles” on the “Last Days.” We ought not forget the nature of the “last days. They stretch from Jesus first coming to his Second Coming. Chart below.

Note also that one of the series is missing from John’s account. We simply do not have all the pieces of the puzzle! We teach on Revelation, but with humility and respect for those who differ.

eschatology-chart (2)

I know chronology is a popular way of interpreting the book according to futurists. There are elaborate charts showing the “end times” as they will occur. However, I have not found that to be comforting to me, much less to people in the First Century Asia Minor Church. 

My own personal experience

When I was a young teenager, a very famous futurist teacher came to the church I attended. He had a chart that was a painting of the entire history of man — “The Plan of the Ages.” It was more than 30 feet in length and was over 8 feet high. It was anchored to the walls of the church and he preached each night from the chart. 

It bothered me that he preached from his chart rather than doing an exposition of the Scriptures. And, the church had to insure it while it was on display that week. 

What good would a detailed chronological revelation of the end times do for the first twenty centuries of suffering Christians? 

Jesus’s Interests and Ours

Look at Acts 1:6-8.

6 So when they had come together, they asked him, “Lord, will you at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?”

The disciples are interested in when. Jesus is interested in what and how. We ought to rearrange our priorities to line up with His.

7 He said to them, “It is not for you to know times or seasons that the Father has fixed by his own authority. 8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth.” (ESV emphasis mine). 

Into Chapter 6 next time!


Beale, G. K. (2015). Revelation: A Shorter Commentary. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Kindle Edition.

Hebrews – Revelation (n.d.) Podcasts by Dr. Michael Kruger on the Catholic Epistles. Accessed from iTunes. Free to download from [I recommend Dr. Kruger highly.]

Impact of Television. (2019). Accessed 20 December 2019 from

Superbowl 2016. (2016). Access 20 December 2019 from

© 2020 C. Richard Barbare All Rights Reserved