Revelation 10: A Divine Commission Given

Revelation 10

1 Then I saw another mighty angel coming down from heaven, wrapped in a cloud, with a rainbow over his head, and his face was like the sun, and his legs like pillars of fire. 2 He had a little scroll open in his hand. And he set his right foot on the sea, and his left foot on the land, 3 and called out with a loud voice, like a lion roaring.

This Chapter is one that emphasizes the full scope of John’s commission as a prophet. He is to have a worldwide ministry. Although he never carried his message to the whole world in person, nevertheless, his message has been delivered to the world throughout all ages by means of his writings. This passage confirms to John that he indeed has a prophetic call. Remember that he is in exile and needs confirmation that his message needs to be written down. The message applies to God’s people of all ages, as well.


Feast of Pentecost El Greco 1600

Acts 1:8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth. EL Greco painting cs. 1600 from Wikipedia

That brings us to the reason for the interlude between the sixth and seventh trumpets. We had a similar interlude between the sixth and the seventh seals. There was a need for explanation of security of God’s people in the midst of the seal judgments. Here the judgments are more intense and there is need for explanation as to what God’s people are to be doing while judgment falls on God’s opponents. They are in need of assurance that the message is still effective in the midst of active opposition! The key verse comes at the end.

God has commissioned John and His people to preach to all nations — “you must prophesy!” vs. 11

I. God is sovereign over the land and the sea. vs. 2

vs. 1 The Identity the Angel — “Another” is allos = “another of the same kind.” The terminology used rules out the identification of this figure as the Lord Jesus himself. Jesus is always identified forthrightly in the Revelation of John. “Christ is never called an angel in this book, and this angel is not accorded divine honors. — Leon Morris

The angel is invested with divine power because he has a divine mission to perform. The tense of verb is the present tense participle = “coming down.” John actually sees this angel make his descent. The direction of descent in the vision indicates that John is now seeing things from the earthly perspective, whereas before he was seeing things from the heavenly viewpoint. So ought we if we are to prophesy God’s Words to our age.


The Holy Spirit rides in the chariot of Scripture, and not in the wagon of modern thought. Scripture is that ark of the covenant which contains the golden pot of manna, and also bears above it the divine light of God’s shining. The Spirit of God works in, by, and through, and with the Word; and if we keep to that Word, we may rest assured that the Holy Ghost will keep with us, and make our testimony to be a thing of power.
— C. H. Spurgeon, from a Sermon delivered at the Metropolitan Tabernacle, April 19th, 1891

The Angel’s Appearance — Clouds are identified in Psalm 104:3 as God’s chariots. The rainbow brings to mind Rev. 4 — a rainbow surrounded the throne. His countenance was brilliant cf. Rev. 1:16.


Angel of the Revelation by William Blake, between circa 1803 and circa 1805

vs. 2 The Scroll in his Hand—The word for “scroll” in Rev. 5:2 is biblion (the Greek word from which we derive our English word “bible”) . Here the word is biblaridion. This is the only use of this word in the New Testament, so it is difficult to determine its exact meaning. It seems to be a diminutive form of biblos (“little scroll”) This small scroll lay open on the hand of the angel, whereas the other scroll (in Rev. 5) was sealed. The tense of the verb anoigô (“to open”) is perfect tense. It had been opened in the past and still lay open on the palm of the angel in the present.

What is the significance of this “little scroll?” It contains God’s purposes which he has been pleased to reveal to man i.e. his program for the end of the world. Since it is a diminutive form, it only contains a portion of that program, and is not comprehensive like the other scroll in Rev. 5 & 6. Humans can only comprehend a portion of God’s wisdom, Therefore, God only entrusts a portion of it to man.

Collossus of Rhodes 1911

The famous Colossus of Rhodes, familiar to all of Asia Minor though long gone by the time of writing. One greater than the ancient Colossus delivered John’s and our commission. 

The Size and Posture of the Ange l — The angel’s posture denotes that he has authority over the entire earth — water and land. The angel’s size defies description. It would be a great  encouragement to a small group of beleaguered Christians to know they had such colossal forces at work in their behalf.

II. God knows all, but we His servants know only what He has revealed in His Word vs. 3-4.

vs. 3b … When he called out, the seven thunders sounded. 4 And when the seven thunders had sounded, I was about to write, but I heard a voice from heaven saying, “Seal up what the seven thunders have said, and do not write it down.” 

The Angel’s Shout — The loud shout brings on the sounding of the seven thunders. Note carefully that the phrase has the definite article, and, therefore, is identified as a specific group of thunders.


vs. 4 The Seven Thunders — The seven thunders gave forth revelation about the plan of God for the end of the world. John understood what they revealed, and he was about to write when he was stopped. N.B. the use of the prohibitory subjunctive = me + aorist subjunctive indicating, “Do not even begin to write.”

All we have to help us in interpreting the seven thunders is in Psalm 29. Note the recurring phrase, “The voice of the Lord.”

3 The voice of the Lord is over the waters; the God of glory thunders, the Lord, over many waters.
4 The voice of the Lord is powerful; the voice of the Lord is full of majesty.
5 The voice of the Lord breaks the cedars; the Lord breaks the cedars of Lebanon.
6 He makes Lebanon to skip like a calf, and Sirion like a young wild ox.
7 The voice of the Lord flashes forth flames of fire.
8 The voice of the Lord shakes the wilderness; the Lord shakes the wilderness of Kadesh. 9 The voice of the Lord makes the deer give birth and strips the forests bare, and in his temple all cry, “Glory!”

“Either the seven thunders were [only] intended for John’s [personal] illumination and were not essential to the main vision of the seven trumpets, or the reference is designated to strike a note of mystery with reference to God’s revelatory activities (cf. II Cor. 12:4). As the visible portion of an iceberg is only a small part of it, so God’s disclosures reveal only part of his total being and purposes.”

I take the second view. God makes sure we do not assume to know it all.

A Caveat — The fact that John does not give us all the visions relating to the future should caution us about being so dogmatic about our different systems of interpreting prophecy. We do not have all of the pieces of the puzzle! This portion of revelation was deliberately sealed up. Leon Morris, on page 138 of his commentary, brings out that sealing in apocalyptic writings signifies that which is to be kept hidden (Cf. Daniel 12:4).

When I was in Seminary, there was a clothes closet we visited often. It had books and games. We once took a puzzle. That puzzle drove us all crazy. It didn’t have missing pieces. An imp had thrown extra pieces into it from another puzzle! I took that puzzle back minus the extra pieces. 

Puzzle Wikipedia

We do not have extra pieces in the Revelation puzzle, but we have pieces God has deliberately left out to make us humble as we read it and proclaim it. Like the apostles at the ascension, ““It is not for [us] to know times or seasons that the Father has fixed by his own authority. 8 But … [we are to] be His witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth.” 

A father wanted to read a magazine but was being bothered by his little girl, Shelby. She wanted to know what the United States looked like.

Finally, he tore a sheet out of his new magazine on which was printed the map of the country. Tearing it into small pieces, he gave it to Shelby, and said, “Go into the other room and see if you can put this together. This will show you our whole country today.”

After a few minutes, Shelby returned and handed him the map correctly fitted together. The father was surprised and asked how she had finished so quickly. “Oh,” she said, “on the other side of the paper is a picture of Jesus. When I got all of Jesus back where He belonged, then our country just came together.” (see Map and the Face of Jesus, below.)

If we read Revelation to find the place Jesus deserves in our hearts and lives, instead of looking for times and seasons, He’ll put us back together right and our country as well!

Next time more on Revelation 10.

Notes (Commentaries on which I rely without direct quotation) 

Beale, G. K. (2015). Revelation: a Shorter Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Kindle Edition.

ESV. (2001). Accessed 24 June 2020 from

Johnson, A. F. (1982). Revelation in Expositor’s Bible Commentary, ed. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Johnson, D. E. (2001). Triumph of the Lamb: A Commentary on Revelation. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishers. Kindle Edition.

Kenner, C. (2000). The NIV Application Commentary: Revelation. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Academic.

Map and the Face of Jesus. (2020). Accessed 2 August 2020 from ttps://

Spurgeon, C. H. (1891). Accessed 2 August 2020 from

© 2020 C. Richard Barbare All Rights Reserved

Chapter Nine Summary: Repent!

Image above in the public domain “The Adoration of the Golden Calf” by Nicolas Poussin.

Revelation 9

20 The rest of mankind, who were not killed by these plagues, did not repent of the works of their hands nor give up worshiping demons and idols of gold and silver and bronze and stone and wood, which cannot see or hear or walk, 21 nor did they repent of their murders or their sorceries or their sexual immorality or their thefts.

The last paragraph in Revelation 9 gives us the intent of the Fifth and Sixth Trumpet judgments —

The judgments of God even though severe are intended to bring men to repentance.

I. Mankind’s attempt to satisfy its desires apart from God and His ways ends up creating false religion.

Revelation 9:20-21 gives us a view of the religion of evil times. It affords us a rare look into the heathen society in which John lived in the First Century and the one in which we live in the Twenty-first Century.

False religion involves idolatry which is in reality the worship of demons — I Corinthians 10 —

18 Consider the people of Israel: are not those who eat the sacrifices participants in the altar? 19 What do I imply then? That food offered to idols is anything, or that an idol is anything? 20 No, I imply that what pagans sacrifice they offer to demons and not to God. I do not want you to be participants with demons. 21 You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons. You cannot partake of the table of the Lord and the table of demons. [ESV]

Colossians 3:5 underlines the same warning about substituting false gods for the worship of the true God —

5 Put to death, therefore, whatever belongs to your earthly nature: sexual immorality, impurity, lust, evil desires and greed, which is idolatry. [NIV]

Behind an idol is a demon manipulating the circumstances of the worshiper.


1909 painting The Worship of Mammon (or wealth) by Evelyn De Morgan

The power of the idol is dependent upon the trust the person places in it. The worshiper will appease the idol and place trust in it to avert danger from his own life. All the while, the demon is making things happen to buttress the person’s confidence in the idol. It is a vicious cycle. In the West, the idols are wealth and materialism which create envy and greed.

This idolatry/demonic element is evident when visiting developing countries. Animistic practices bring about bondage to people who are not committed to Jesus Christ as Lord. In the West, we think we have outgrown such superstitions. Read the story of a Vietnamese family who turned to Christ.

After a [Vietnamese] friend shared Jesus with…Thuan* and his wife Hien*, they chose to also follow Jesus—at great risk. The couple lives in an area of northern Vietnam where believing in Jesus rather than traditional beliefs—including ancestor worship—is considered a betrayal not only to the family, but also to their whole ethnic identity.

A few days after Thuan and Hien became Christians, local authorities came to their home and told the couple they must return to ancestor worship, or they would be kicked out of the village. The authorities also pressured Thuan and Hien’s relatives to threaten the couple and try to convince them to leave their newfound faith.

But Thuan and Hien refused. As a result, the family now lives in isolation, shunned by their community after the village chief publicly denounced them and their new beliefs. Even children in the village are banned from interacting with Thuan and Hien’s kids. The family has lost everything because they have chosen to follow Jesus. On September, 30 a group of relatives, villagers and local authorities destroyed the family’s house, fruit trees and killed or stole their livestock. [See Open Doors, below.]

Idolaters hate those who worship the true God. However, “Their arms are too short to box with God.” James Weldon Johnson (pictured below) sought to capture in poetry the cadence and rhythms of gifted black preachers of the past in his book God’s Trombones: Seven Negro Sermons in Verse [African-American instead of “negro” is more acceptable today.] — 

James_Weldon_Johnson Wikipedia

Portrait from Wikimedia Commons

The Prodigal Son

Young man —
Young man —
Your arm’s too short to box with God. …

There comes a time,
There comes a time
When ev’ry young man looks out from his father’s house,
Longing for that far-off country [Babylon]. …

Oh-o-oh, sinner,
When you’re mingling with the crowd in Babylon —
Drinking the wine of Babylon —
Running with the women of Babylon —
You forget about God, and you laugh at Death.
Today you’ve got the strength of a bull in your neck
And the strength of a bear in your arms,
But some o’ these days, some o’ these days,
You’ll have a hand-to-hand struggle with bony Death,
And Death is bound to win.

Prodigal son Pompeo_Batoni_003

The Return of the Prodigal Son (1773) by Pompeo Batoni

Young man, come away from Babylon,
That hell-border city of Babylon.
Leave the dancing and gambling of Babylon,
The wine and whiskey of Babylon,
The hot-mouthed women of Babylon;
Fall down on your knees,
And say in your heart:
I will arise and go to my Father. [See Johnson, J. W., below] 

I shared this poem with a class in the early 2000s. They said that they had wondered why people read that at Church during black history month. The church hadn’t explained the readings to the hearers. Tradition had become traditionalism. “Tradition is the living faith of the dead, traditionalism is the dead faith of the living. And, I suppose I should add, it is traditionalism that gives tradition such a bad name.” (see Pelikan below.) Modern preaching in both black and white mainline churches is not as it once was! Both have become a blind following of tradition wedded to the spirit of this age. Faithful preaching must always call for repentance and a return to God through Jesus Christ.

Jesus Christ is central in the lives of His people! He supplies all we need.

II. We are created by God to worship and serve Him alone.


St. Augustine by Carlo Crivelli ca. AD 1478

St. Augustine of Hippo stated this well in his Confessions — “Thou hast formed us for Thyself, and our hearts are restless till they find rest in Thee.” [See St. Augustine below] 

Mankind is incurably religious by nature. Blaise Pascal gives us this concept best —

What else does this craving [for God], and this helplessness, proclaim but that there was once in man a true happiness, of which all that now remains is the empty print and trace? This he tries in vain to fill with everything around him, seeking in things that are not there the help he cannot find in those that are, though none can help, since this infinite abyss can be filled only with an infinite and immutable object; in other words by God himself. [See Pascal below.] 


Blaise Pascal Augustin Pajou, 1785, Louvre

What did Pascal mean? “As one can see, when God created humans, he wanted them to look around for Him and search for Him. This is one of God’s plans, and in doing so, He created this “hole” [in man’s soul] that cannot be filled by any other; in short, that ‘God-shaped hole’ was created by God for us to look for Him [to fill it].” [See God-shaped Hole, below.] 

III. God’s intransigent opponents refuse to repent and worship Him, the true and living God.

Their Lack of Repentance — In vs. 20, the sin is idolatry. Now John catalogues the sins which flow from idol worship in verse 21. Idolatry always leads to a sinful lifestyle.

… In the ancient world, religion involved the use of drugs to cast spells, to poison, and to make potions. All this darkness is preferred by sinful men over the light of God. Some men will never repent. These ones God reserves for the last judgment. However, even at this time, God is still trying to persuade men to repent. He is a gracious God. “But when God’s works and words are persistently rejected, only judgment remains.” [see Johnson, A. F. below.]

Henry Van Til summed this up in his oft-quoted definition —”Culture is simply the service of God in our lives; it is religion externalized.” (see Van Til, p. 200, below.)

The Greek word for “sorceries” (pharmakôs) is the one from which we derive the English word “pharmacy.” In the NT it refers to a purveyor in witchcraft. Potients were widely used to bring people under a spell, e.g. a love potient.


A Pervitin (Methamphetamine) canister from WWII given to Nazi soldiers to make them fierce and in little need of sleep.

Drugs  have been used to alter person’s behavior for the worse. Drug use was widespread at all levels of the Nazi regime —

In his bestselling book, The Total Rush — recently published in English as Blitzed — Norman Ohler found that many in the Nazi regime used drugs regularly, from the soldiers of the Wehrmacht (German armed forces) all the way up to Hitler himself. The use of methamphetamine, better known as crystal meth, was particularly prevalent. A pill form of the drug, Pervitin, was distributed by the millions to Wehrmacht troops before the successful invasion of France in 1940.

When it came to Nazi leaders, Ohler’s research suggested, they all favored their own particular drugs of choice. In an interview, … Ohler clarified: “Not all of them took every drug. Some more, some less. Some of them were on methamphetamine — for example, Ernst Udet, the Chief of Aircraft Procurement and Supply. Others were on strong anesthetics, like Göring, whose nickname was actually ‘Möring,’ from morphine.” [see Nazi Drug Use below.]

We ought to be careful about the use of controlled substances (apart from legitimate doctor-issued prescriptions for our health issues). Drugs have been used in the past to capture men and women’s minds and rewire them to do the will of evil men.

The current anarchy at work in our society seems to be drug-fueled. For instance a recent Tweet states — “Drug use among [anarchist organization] members is rampant. 81% report using an illegal substance on a semi-regular or regular basis. Cocaine and heroin are the top drugs of choice while meth is a close 3rd place.” Another person in response tweeted — “This is crazy. I take Ritalin and have a medical marijuana card.” (Obviously, this is an illegitimate use of prescription drugs.) A last response hit the nail on the head — “Mind control is real.”

All I can conclude is, “what a waste of young lives in our time!” If you doubt, watch the “Frontline Report” 2020 on “Opioids, Inc.” on PBS. [see Opioids, Inc., below for the link to the Article and the film.]

I can leave you with the only hope I know — turn away from evil and embrace Jesus Christ as your Lord and Savior!

This chart below summarizes the application of the ninth chapter.

Graph for Rev 9

Next time, on to chapter ten!


Bible quotations from [ESV and NIV]

God-shaped Hole. (2014). “Where does the concept of a “God-shaped hole” originate?” Accesssed 23 July 2020 from

Johnson, A. F. (1982). Revelation in Expositor’s Bible Commentary, ed. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Johnson, J. W. (1927). “The Prodigal Son”, poem in God’s Trombones. Accessed 23 July 2020 from

Open Doors. (2020) “New believers lose home, family, community to follow Jesus in Vietnam.” Accessed 23 July 2020 from [* true names were changed to obscure their hiding place from ancestor worshiping persecuters.]

Opiods, Inc. (2016). “How Bad is the Opioid Epidemic?” Webpage article. Accessed 23 July 2020 from The Film version is available at

Nazi Drug Use (2017). Inside the Drug Use That Fueled Nazi Germany. Accessed 23 July 2020 from

Pascal, B. (1662). Pensees, Book VII, ¶ 425. Accessed 23 July 2020 from

Pelikan, J. (1983). From ” The Vindication of Tradition: The 1983 Jefferson Lecture in the Humanities.” Accessed 25 July 2020 from

St. Augustine of Hippo. (ca. AD 400) Confessions, 1,1.5. Accessed 23 July 2020 from 

Van Til, H. (1972). The Calvinistic Concept of Culture. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker. 

© 2020 C. Richard Barbare All Rights Reserved

The Plague brought by the Sixth Trumpet

Revelation 9

12 The first woe has passed; behold, two woes are still to come.

The judgments are so severe that they are no longer just called trumpets. They are hereafter referred to as “woes.”

As we noted in the last trumpet, if lesser warnings are not heeded, more severe ones come.

The first four trumpets touched man’s environment. They are indirect. The fifth is more direct but falls short of the death of human beings. Now with the sixth trumpet, people are directly killed by the plague the sixth trumpet brings. It will be fulfilled ultimately at the end of the age.

The-End-of-the-World 2

The End of the World by John Martin (19 July 1789 – 17 February 1854)

13 Then the sixth angel blew his trumpet, and I heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar before God, 14 saying to the sixth angel who had the trumpet, “Release the four angels who are bound at the great river Euphrates.”

I. The sixth trumpet brings a plague on the Church’s persecuters that is a result of the prayers of the saints. vss. 13-14

If we find ourselves hemmed in on all sides, we still have an opened access to heaven. We can and must pray. The golden altar where the saints’ prayers are offered in Rev. 6:10 is the location of the voice that releases this severe plague.

The Voice Speaking — This voice comes from the golden altar described in Rev. 8:1-5. No doubt the speaker is the angel who hurled the censer to the earth in answer to the saints’ prayers. The saints’ prayers are still being answered. The times in which God’s people live are never too evil that God doesn’t hear and answer their prayers.

Incense altar

The Release of the Four Angels — The second woe is similar to the first one. It is also a release of a demonic horde. The only difference between this woe and the last is that these angels have the ability to kill people. This appears to be a demon invasion that leads to war among peoples: international, civil within nations, and local wars.

The Euphrates River was considered to be the boundary of the Holy Land. Beyond it lay the nations — the enemies of the people of God who persecuted and enslaved them. The Romans even had difficulties with the Parthians whose empire lay beyond this river.

The Number “4” — The number four, the four points of the compass, leads us to think of the earth. This demonic invasion is one that involves the whole earth just before the end of an age or the final end of this age.

We have had two world wars in the 20th Century. War always destroys civilizations. It undermines moral standards and allows people to escape from Biblical upbringing that would have controlled sinful tendencies.

Immigrants to our nation in each generation are always of two kinds. There are foreign immigrants who come from other countries to our shores and are in need of instruction about the Biblical basis of liberty. However, we are not sufficiently aware of a second group of immigrants who are in need of instruction, as well. They are biological immigrants — our children. Our country since WWII has failed to initiate its own children in the true meaning of liberty. The late Judge Robert Bork reminds us—

Bork Book Cover“Every new generation constitutes a wave of savages who must be civilized by their families, schools, and churches. An exceptionally large generation can swamp the institutions responsible for teaching traditions and standards. …[Since World War II] heap after heap of human beings have been dumped on to the historic scene at such an accelerated rate, that it has been difficult to saturate them with traditional culture. This is what Rathenau called ‘the vertical invasion of the barbarians.'” (see Bork below, p. 21.)

15 So the four angels, who had been prepared for the hour, the day, the month, and the year, were released to kill a third of mankind.

II. God releases the hoard, so He is sovereign over all circumstances related to it. vss. 15-16

Four Specific Angels — These four angels are a specific group of angels. This is indicated by — (1) the use of the definite article before their name and the participle describing them; and, (2) the use of the definite article before hora (hour)


The Tigris-Euphrates River courses Wikipedia

Specific Time for Release — Note that all the time words are joined to the one definite article by kai (”and”). It is a specific time for which they have been prepared. The hour, day, month, and year of their release has been specified. God is in control!

Specific Mission — Again, we see the 1/3rd part killed stressing that even this judgment is partial and not total. God is still warning men. It is not too late to repent.

16 The number of mounted troops was twice ten thousand times ten thousand; I heard their number.

The Number of the Demonic Horde — This demonic horde is under the command of the four angels which have just been loosed. John heard the count, but did not see the actual 200,000,000 ride by him.


Gustave Dore public domain

17 And this is how I saw the horses in my vision and those who rode them: they wore breastplates the color of fire and of sapphire and of sulfur, and the heads of the horses were like lions’ heads, and fire and smoke and sulfur came out of their mouths.

III. The otherworldly character of the horses and riders are indicative of demons not modern technology. vss. 17-19

The Appearance of the Horses — John saw the appearance (horasis) of the horses and their riders. The word is from horao (to see) . He did not see the whole advancing army. The breastplates were tri-colored — red, blue, and yellow. These ‘animals’ are fierce. They symbolize a demonic horde. Sulfur is what the Elizabethians called “brimstone.”


Demonic Rider from Copyright © 

18 By these three plagues a third of mankind was killed, by the fire and smoke and sulfur coming out of their mouths.

The Plagues of the Horses — The fire, smoke, and sulfur are described as ‘three plagues’. All of these are associated with hell — the abode of the demons. This supernatural phenomenon is not in the physical realm.

19 For the power of the horses is in their mouths and in their tails, for their tails are like serpents with heads, and by means of them they wound.

The Power of the Horses — These fierce demons hurt with both ends of their bodies.

The Four Horsemen from The Apocalypse

The Four Horsemen, from The Apocalypse
1498 by Albrecht Dürer

Conclusion about the fulfillment of the Sixth Trumpet

Are we at the final end of the age itself? I can’t say, but at the least end of Western Civilization which has been under the driving force of secular humanism since the enlightenment.

R. J. Rushdoony was a philosopher as well as a preacher. I can’t say I agree with all his ideas — e.g. theonomy. I do agree with his critique about our age.

The death of an age is a bloody business. Men, disillusioned with the promises of their faith, yet unwilling to surrender them, strike out at everything in rage and in frustration. Like a rudderless ship, the civilization loses its direction and is driven by events instead of driving through them. Today, in the last days of humanism, as men steadily destroy their world, it is important for us to understand the meaning of the times and act in terms of that knowledge. The humanists in their blindness celebrate “the death of God” when it is in fact the death of humanism and their own funeral they are racing to in their heedless course. Humanism is dying because its faith is false, and its promises bankrupt.

Humanism is dying, if not dead. Living with a corpse is no pleasant matter. It does not require documentation to tell us that a corpse is far gone. The answer to our problem lies elsewhere, not in documentation on death, but in reconstruction for life. Humanism is dead, but the triune God lives and rules, sovereign over all. (see Rushdoony, below.)

Next time we will sum up chapter nine and its primary teaching for us.


Beale, G. K. (2015). Revelation: a Shorter Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Kindle Edition.

Bork, R. (1996) Slouching Towards Gomorrah: Modern Liberalism and American Decline. New York City, New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

ESV. (2001). Accessed 24 June 2020 from

Johnson, A. F. (1982). Revelation in Expositor’s Bible Commentary, ed. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Johnson, D. E. (2001). Triumph of the Lamb: A Commentary on Revelation. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishers. Kindle Edition.

Kenner, C. (2000). The NIV Application Commentary: Revelation. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Academic.

Rushdoony, R. J. (2013). The Death of an Age and Its Faith. Accessed 18 July 2020 from

© 2020 C. Richard Barbare All Rights Reserved

The Plague of the Fifth Trumpet

Revelation 9

1 And the fifth angel blew his trumpet, and I saw a star fallen from heaven to earth, and he was given the key to the shaft of the bottomless pit. 2 He opened the shaft of the bottomless pit, and from the shaft rose smoke like the smoke of a great furnace, and the sun and the air were darkened with the smoke from the shaft. [ESV]

Image above from Ben Curtis/AP

We should understand from the woes that more severe plagues come upon persecuters of Christians if the warning of lesser plagues is not heeded. 

vs. 3 Then from the smoke came locusts on the earth, and they were given power like the power of scorpions of the earth.


The angel of death striking a door during the Antonine plague of Rome: an engraving by Levasseur after Jules-Elie Delaunay (1828-1891). Wikimedia commons image

Some attempt to see armies of men, tanks, etc. in this vision. However, only a demonic invasion does full justice to what is described in this chapter (see Keener, below.)

The background to the locust image

Exodus 10:12-15 records the locust plague on Egypt that led to the liberation of the children of Israel from the land of Egypt. The locusts were literal predatory insects with which we are familiar. 

Joel 1:4 and 2:1-2 record an army invasion compared to a locust infestation. 


Locust swarm in Africa 2020. Image from Reuters News on

John uses the images from the two previous passages to depict a demonic invasion. The locusts’ power in Greek is exousia (authority). Their authority is like that of a scorpion sting. The sting of a scorpion usually does not kill. It merely produces an intense burning. This is not a part of the normal make up of locusts. This is a demonic invasion from the spiritual world to the physical world. It is invisible. Yet, its effects are visible. It is probably an intense anxiety and mental anguish. (see Johnson, D. E. below.)

Locusts on a tree

Locusts on a tree that they have stripped. Images from

vs. 4 They were told not to harm the grass of the earth or any green plant or any tree, but only those people who do not have the seal of God on their foreheads.

God’s command to the locusts

The passive voice is used without a definite subject indicating an implied divine agent. The speaker himself is not identified. The important detail is not the identity of the speaker, but the fact that demons are under the sovereign control of God.

Prohibition against eating greenery 

These locusts are not literal locusts because they do not do what normal locusts do not eat greenery. They sting humans. They bring torment to unrepentant men. It is not torment physically, but spiritual and mental anguish. Nothing is so excruciating mentally as having a demon tempt you to sin, and then, having him turn around and torment you in your conscience for having done so. Multiply this scenario by a thousandfold and you will see the pangs of the lost who will not come to Christ for cleansing. They are miserable and will not come to Christ the balm of Gilead. See Johnson A. F., below; I have relied heavily on this commentary in the past especially for my notes in 1992-93.)

Harm comes only to the unbelieving, persecuters of God’s people

We are assured that torment is not the lot of the children of God. Over God’s children the demons have no authority. The seal of the living God safeguards his own.

vs. 5 They were allowed to torment them for five months, but not to kill them, and their torment was like the torment of a scorpion when it stings someone. 6 And in those days people will seek death and will not find it. They will long to die, but death will flee from them.

A Further Prohibition

Death eludes those who are stung. The persons are tormented for five months. The question arises as to the reference of the five months torment. (1) Is the plague of  five months duration? (2) Or, does the sting itself last for five months? It is interesting that the normal life of a locust is five months. The reference is most likely to the short duration of the torment. The locusts are only around for five months. The time is short. If it were not, men would die from the mental anguish of it.

The sting of the Locusts

Scorpions do not as a general rule kill. But, their bite is painful. In any case, these locusts with scorpion bites are spiritual realities, not physical ones.

People are not able to die

Note the double negative ou me — “they will by no means find it.” It is a strong negation. Death will not come as a result of the sting. Men, who are not willing to kill themselves, will often say, “I wish I would just go ahead and die!” But, the sting is not sufficient to threaten life. “Elude” is present tense. Death keeps on fleeing from them.

Sphinx from Spata-570BC

Sphinx from Spata, Attica (570 BCE) – NAMA

The appearance of the locusts

vss. 7 In appearance the locusts were like horses prepared for battle: on their heads were what looked like crowns of gold; their faces were like human faces, 8 their hair like women’s hair, and their teeth like lions’ teeth; 9 they had breastplates like breastplates of iron, and the noise of their wings was like the noise of many chariots with horses rushing into battle. 10 They have tails and stings like scorpions, and their power to hurt people for five months is in their tails.

Note that he does not say that they had crowns of gold on their heads or that they actually had men’s faces. He said that their likeness (homoios) was like (hos) this. The description defies our ability to even imagine what it would look like. This is a clear indication that John saw spiritual reality and not physical reality. This is a fierce demonic horde that is bringing torment upon the unrepentant. 

Christian and apollyon

Apollyon (top) battling Christian in John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress. ca. 1850.

vs. 11 They have as king over them the angel of the bottomless pit. His name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek he is called Apollyon.

The Destroyer 

The Angel of the Abyss may be the identification of the fallen star in vs. 1. Both Abaddon (in Hebrew = “Destruction”) and Apollyon (in Greek) mean “Destroyer.”

The irony of torment by Satan and demons

Let me quote from Dennis E. Johnson’s commentary on the irony of the demonic attack on those who serve Satan’s purpose — 

This vision discloses the tragic double irony of serving Satan. First, as the angel of the abyss, the fallen star releases these demonic hordes not to afflict his enemies, the servants of God (for he cannot touch those shielded by God’s seal), but rather to afflict his allies “who dwell on the earth,” who receive the beast’s mark and worship his blasphemous image (14:14-17). The devil rewards his loyal subjects with cruel torture. Second, the relief that the tortured think they would attain through death is denied them, for the malevolent spirits that poison their minds are forbidden from taking their lives. (See Johnson, D. E. below.) 

I would add, it doesn’t pay to serve Satan’s purposes for treasures that will not last. He is not grateful, but torments human agents who can have what he can never have — salvation from sin and a life of abundant joy serving God.

On to the Sixth Trumpet next week.


Beale, G. K. (2015). Revelation: a Shorter Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Kindle Edition.

ESV. (2001). Accessed 24 June 2020 from

Johnson, A. F. (1982). Revelation in Expositor’s Bible Commentary, ed. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Johnson, D. E. (2001). Triumph of the Lamb: A Commentary on Revelation. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishers. Kindle Edition.

Kenner, C. (2000). The NIV Application Commentary: Revelation. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Academic.

© 2020 C. Richard Barbare All Rights Reserved

Revelation 9: Torments for Persecutors of God’s People

Image above Albrecht Dürer “The Angel with the Key to the Abyss,” from: The Apocalypse, circa A.D. 1497.

Revelation 9

The First Woe

1 And the fifth angel blew his trumpet, and I saw a star fallen from heaven to earth, and he was given the key to the shaft of the bottomless pit.

I. We should see in the three ‘Woes’ God’s increasing judgment against the persecutors of His people and those who oppose His will.

Structure of the Last Trumpet Blasts

This verse signals the fifth trumpet as the first of three ‘woes.’ The last three trumpets are said to be ‘woes’ because of the increase in severity to mankind. They are designed to bring extreme calamity and suffering upon the “earthdwellers” — that part of mankind that is opposed to God.

The first four trumpets are indirect — affecting only man’s natural environment. The last three trumpets affect man directly by touching his very life.

The Purpose of the Trumpets

God is still warning men. The day of grace is not past at this point. People can still repent and be saved. But, with the rejection of grace extended in the indirect warnings, more severe judgments come in the direct ones.

We do not know whether the judgments of our time are the end of the age itself, but we know they signal the end of our civilization as we know it.

The Asia Minor believers of the first century would have looked upon severe judgments on Rome as means by which God was punishing sin and persecutors of His church. These last four seem to be a reiteration of the last three seals which focus more clearly on the end of the age. 

II. We should see that God can use evil to bring His will to pass. 

The Position of the Star in the Vision

John did not see the star, actually fall. It had already fallen to the earth when he saw it in the vision. “Fall” (piptô) is in the perfect tense.

The Interpretation of the “Star”

It is obvious that the “star” is used symbolically of a person. Which person is indicated?

(1) A ‘star’ is often used as a symbol for ‘angel’ (compare Job 38:4-7 and Lk. 10:17-18);
(2) Some feel very strongly that the star is a fallen angel — even Satan himself.
(3) Others feel
that it is just an angel sent on a mission.
(4) One
commentator takes it as an abstract — the gospel (Torrence) .
*(5) There are many suggestions, but
a definite identification is impossible. It is safe to say that the fallen star here is a person — a spiritual being — of great magnitude who performs a God-given task. That is all we know about him.

The Shaft of the Abyss

The “shaft of the abyss” is a Hebrew concept. The Greek word abyssos is an adjective meaning ‘bottomless’ or “unfathomable.’

(1) In the LXX, (the Septuagint or Greek translation of the Hebrew OT) , it occurs 25 times translating the Hebrew word tehom — the primal ocean, deep waters, or the place of departed spirits.
(2) It also carried the meaning “prison of fallen spirits” in Rabbinic Judaism.
(3) In the N.T. it means “a prison for demons.” (Colin Brown’s New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Vol. II, p. 205)

The Restraint of Certain Demons

If these demons were not limited in their access to the earth, the earth would be a much more evil place. Demons do not perpetrate all that is upon their hearts to do because the Lord restrains them. However, at a certain point, the Lord relaxes his restraint upon demonic forces. Then, they can perpetrate more of their plans and designs upon their victims. God does this in order to bring men to repentance. The goodness of God is supposed to lead men to repentance, but often they only respond to judgment.

The Key to Evil is in God’s Hands. 

The Key “was given” to the angel using the passive voice to indicate an implied divine agent.

Literal doesn’t mean a newspaper account of the future. The Use of “like” and “as” in Chapter 9 is important. It should be noted that the words “like” (homoios) and “as” (hôs) occur more often in this chapter than in any other chapter in the Bible (15 times).

John is not seeing things in their essence — like they really are. He is seeing spiritual realities symbolized in forms he cannot find literal words to describe. That is why he says that “they were like X”. Note carefully, he did not say “they were X”.



© 2020 C. Richard Barbare All Rights Reserved

Application of the First Four Trumpets

Image above from Wikimedia commons.

Application of the Major Teachings of Revelation 8

Application of Revelation 8

The two points of application in Revelation 8 are:
(1) the Prayers of God’s people for vindication in their persecution and sufferings — “O Sovereign Lord, holy and true, how long before you will judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth?” [ESV; Rev. 6:10] and
(2) the judgments that fall on the earth-dwellers as a result of God’s intervention in answer to His people’s prayers.

I. Silence in heaven demonstrates God is attentive to our prayers. 

The Seventh Seal has content and is not just a dramatic pause. All of heaven is brought to silence so God can hear the prayers of His persecuted, suffering people. The suffering is caused by the the earth-dwellers who cannot reach God with their hatred, so they strike out at those who are His people. 

The phrase “those who dwell on the earth” (tous katoikountas epi tēs gēs) refers to those who are permanently at home on the earth and desire no other place (see Thayer, below). God’s people are pilgrims just passing through this earth. Hebrews 11:13-16 states all the Christian’s cherished desire —

13 These all died in faith, not having received the things promised, but having seen them and greeted them from afar, and having acknowledged that they were strangers and exiles on the earth. 14 For people who speak thus make it clear that they are seeking a homeland. 15 If they had been thinking of that land from which they had gone out, they would have had opportunity to return. 16 But as it is, they desire a better country, that is, a heavenly one. Therefore God is not ashamed to be called their God, for he has prepared for them a city. [ESV; empahsis mine.]

II. The fact that God halts all other activity in heaven speaks of His feeling of our sufferings.

Gustave Dore heaven

Gustave Doré: Paradiso Canto XXXI.19. c.1868; innumerable angels surround God’s throne and constantly worship Him. They are hushed to silence when the humblest of saints pray!

God is not impassive — that is He is not without true feelings. God is also not capricious — that is He does not have emotions that flare out through loss of control. J. I. Packer clarifies this position over “open theism” that is heresy.

Impassivity [is not] unconcern and impersonal detachment…and is not insensitivity and indifference to the distresses of a fallen world; not inability or unwillingness to empathize with human pain and grief; but simply that God’s experiences do not come upon him as ours come upon us, for his are foreknown, willed and chosen by himself, and are not involuntary surprises forced on him from outside, apart from his own decision, in the way that ours regularly are. (See Packer, p. 16, below; emphasis mine.)

We are never alone in our sufferings. As the old hymn says — “God hears thy sighs and counts thy tears; God shall lift up thy head.”We have One at God’s right hand who intercedes for us in our suffering.

III. We are right to pray for righteous vengeance if our goal is the glory and vindication of God.


Image from Penterist showing the hands raised in prayer for avenging innocent blood. 

Remember the prayers in Revelation 6:9-11 —

9 When he opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those who had been slain for the word of God and for the witness they had borne. 10 They cried out with a loud voice,
“O Sovereign Lord, holy and true, how long before you will judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth?”
11 Then they were each given a white robe and told to rest a little longer, until the number of their fellow servants and their brothers should be complete, who were to be killed as they themselves had been. [ESV; emphasis mine.]

God hears and answers our prayers like this one from Rev. 6:10! Waiting for the answer is the difficult part. Every evil government will fall in answer to this prayer! Who would have thought the Berlin Wall would have fallen? People sell pieces of it as souvenirs. God rules from His throne and His will comes to pass in His time and way. Our timetable is not His. Ours to to pray in faith and wait. 

IV. In the first four trumpet judgments we see the removal of life-supports that lead to the fall of evil empires and wicked men between Christ’s first coming and His second coming.

Perhaps a chart might show the effects of the first four trumpets better than writing about them.

Trumpet Judgments and Effects on the Earth Dwellers

These removal of life’s physical supports partially (1/3rd) speaks both to unbelieving persecutors of Christians and to those who are believers in Christ. Unbelievers are warned to repent before it is too late. Those who are too much at home here on earth and adopt its thinking and ways will perish when God judges it. Believers who grow close to the ways and thinking of the earth-dwellers will suffer as a result. I am thinking of how compromise with the world may not affect us so much as it affects our children and grandchildren. (see Johnson, D. E. below)

V. The last three trumpet judgments show us that God’s patience has a limit. 

Let us witness to unbelievers of His free offer of Grace to all who believe and repent of their sins. As long as the final judgment has not yet come, there is hope for those who are lost. God can even save the church’s persecutors. Don’t forget Paul the Apostle!

Next time we will move on to Chapter 9 and the first woe.


Beale, G. K. (2015). Revelation: a Shorter Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Kindle Edition.

ESV. (2001). Accessed 24 June 2020 from

Johnson, D. E. (2001). Triumph of the Lamb: A Commentary on Revelation. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishers. Kindle Edition.

Packer, J.I. (1986). “Theism for Our Time,” in Peter T. O’Brien and David G. Peterson, God Who Is Rich in Mercy (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker.

Thayer. (2020). Lexicon of the Greek New Testament. Accessed 24 June 2020 from

© 2020 C. Richard Barbare All Rights Reserved

The Fourth Trumpet Blast and Announcement of the Three Woes

Image above is “The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans Under the Command of Titus, A.D. 70,” by David Roberts (1850), shows the city burning (Wikipedia)

Revelation 8

12 The fourth angel blew his trumpet, and a third of the sun was struck, and a third of the moon, and a third of the stars, so that a third of their light might be darkened, and a third of the day might be kept from shining, and likewise a third of the night.


Battle at Gettysburg, 1863. Stunning illustration from an original 1863 Harper’s Weekly newspaper.

I. We should pay attention to disasters as God’s warning of impending judgment.

vs. 12 The judgment on Light Sources — The Greek word for “stricken” is plessô. The noun form is plêgê from which we derive our English word plague. This is a judgment on the light reaching earth from heavenly bodies. This plague is reminiscent of the ninth plague (Ex. 10:21) in Egypt. Darkness always tends to frighten men. Any disturbance in the heavens should point out a warning to sinners. The effects of this plague is the lessening of the earth’s light. It does not mean that the days are shortened from 24 hrs. to 16 hrs., as some commentators hold. It simply means that only 2/3 of the normal light reaches the earth.

Darkness in day time is generally the effect of siege during war. As enemies burn the surrounding crops, day seems as night. (see Johnson, D. E., below). 

“At the opening of the sixth seal John saw the sun blackened, the moon turned blood-red, and the stars fallen to earth like figs (Rev. 6:12-13); yet now he sees sun, moon, and stars still shining in the sky and then struck with only a partial dimming.” (see Johnson, D. E., below). 

The quotation above underscores the conviction that the various judgments in Revelation are recapitulation of preceding judgments with an increasing focus on the end — also known as progressive parallelism. 


Delos Palmer painting depicting the “Dark Day.” 1934

On May 19, 1780 in Connecticut, at 9 a.m., the legislature was in session, trying to work through the maze of problems caused by “the horrors of an unnatural war,” as clerk Strong put it, when the sky began to darken. Within an hour, he wrote, it “occasioned a solemn gloom of unusual darkness.” In the lower house, work stopped as nervous legislators went to the windows to watch and wonder. It got darker still, and by 11 a.m. it was impossible to read or recognize another person’s features, even when they stood near the legislative chamber’s windows. Panic set in—both in the town and in the general assembly. Fearing that the day of divine Judgment—the Biblically prophesied moment when God would come to “judge the living and the dead” ­– had actually arrived, the lower house hastily adjourned, legislators groping their way through the darkness toward home.

Judge Abraham Davenport of Stamford called his fellows to their civic duty, even in the face of impending doom. “The day of judgment is coming or it is not,” Davenport told his fellow councilors. “If it is not, there is no occasion for alarm. If it is, I wish to be found in the line of my duty. I move therefore, that candles be brought.” See Normen, below). 

Cause of the Darkness and the Meaning

The incident with darkness during the daytime in 1780 was caused by forest fires, thick fog, and cloud cover. (see New England’s Dark Day below.)

II. We as Christians should proclaim Christ’s Gospel during times of disaster.

This story gives us a Christian response to the moral darkness around us today. Maybe this is a sign of the Day of Judgment. It certainly is a herald of judgment on us as Western society for our manifold sins and corruption of other nations around the world. As believers, we ought to be about our duty! We have the Gospel message and it is still “the power of God unto salvation to everyone that believes (Romans 1:16-17).” 

If it is not the final judgment that is upon us, let us all be about our duty of preaching the Gospel, which is always a proper response to any disaster. 

Revelation 8

13 Then I looked, and I heard an eagle crying with a loud voice as it flew directly overhead, “Woe, woe, woe to those who dwell on the earth, at the blasts of the other trumpets that the three angels are about to blow!”


Griffon Vulture Wikipedia

Griffon Vulture Wikipedia

III. We as Christians ought to warn the unrepentant of worse judgments to come if they do not turn to Christ.

vs. 13 The Eagle — The eagle (aetos) is a carrion bird of prey — the griffon-vulture (see Brown; pp. 172-6; below). It is a sign that carnage due to warfare or plague is imminent.

The Three “Woes” — The last three trumpets will be different from the other four. They will be direct judgments. Those who will not repent because of indirect judgments will be hardened by more direct ones.

The phrase “those who dwell on the earth” is a technical term in Revelation for those who are opposed to God and to his people (3:10; 6:10; 8:13; 11:10; 13:8; 17:2) . That there will be severe judgments to follow the indirect ones speaks of the fact that God will not always be patient with unrepentant man. However, there is a limit to God’s longsuffering and forbearance. May God give us grace to respond to him when he speaks or acts.

Trumpets warn of impending judgment, but the final judgment will come in God’s time.

“St. Augustine’s Last Public Prayer” always stirs me not to give up in perilous times.

And it chanced at one time while we were seated with him at the table and were conversing together that he said to us: “I would have you know that in this time of our misfortune I ask this of God: either that He may be pleased to free this city which is surrounded by the foe, or if something else seems good in His sight, that He make His servants brave for enduring His will, or at least that He may take me from this world unto Himself.” (see Possidius, Chapter 29; below).

Next time application of the first four trumpets!

Notes (Sources of this study)

Beale, G. K. (2015). Revelation: a Shorter Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Kindle Edition.

Brown, C. (1979). The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology. Volume I. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House.

Hendriksen, Wm. More Than Conquerors: An Interpretation of the Book of Revelation. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.

Johnson, A. F. (1996). Revelation (Expositor’s Bible Commentary series). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing Co.

Johnson, D. E. (2001). Triumph of the Lamb: A Commentary on Revelation Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishers. Kindle Edition.

New England’s Dark Day. (2020). Assessed 19 June 2020 from

Normen, E. (2016). Darkness and Duty. Accessed 14 June 2010 from

Possidius (439). Life of St. Augustine; CHAPTER XXIX: Augustine’s last illness. Accessed 14 June from

© 2020 C. Richard Barbare All Rights Reserved

The Second and Third Trumpet Blasts

Image above: The naum aquia (naval battle in the flooded Colosseum). Painter: Ulpiano Checa,  1894.

Revelation 8

8 The second angel blew his trumpet, and something like a great mountain, burning with fire, was thrown into the sea, and a third of the sea became blood. 9 A third of the living creatures in the sea died, and a third of the ships were destroyed.

The first trumpet judgment involved disasters on the lands of the persecuters of Christ’s people. Let me make one fact clear. I do not believe the wrath of God falls on His people. They are shielded from harm by God Himself, just as ancient Israel was shielded from Egyptian plagues. (cf Exodus 9:6).

Note also that with some of the plagues, Israelites had something to do to insure God’s protection, Exodus 9 —

18 Behold, about this time tomorrow I will cause very heavy hail to fall, such as never has been in Egypt from the day it was founded until now.

19 Now therefore send, get your livestock and all that you have in the field into safe shelter, for every man and beast that is in the field and is not brought home will die when the hail falls on them.

20 Then whoever feared the word of the Lord among the servants of Pharaoh hurried his slaves and his livestock into the houses, 21 but whoever did not pay attention to the word of the Lord left his slaves and his livestock in the field.

God’s providential care of His people oftentimes includes the use of means that are human. God can act directly or He can act through secondary causes. We are to seek wisdom from God about our circumstances! Then, we are to follow that wisdom to insure our safety and well-being. 

Note God’s instructions to His people when He judges His enemies in Isaiah 26 —

Come, my people, enter your chambers,
and shut your doors behind you;
hide yourselves for a little while
until the fury has passed by.
For behold, the Lord is coming out from his place
to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity,
and the earth will disclose the blood shed on it,
and will no more cover its slain.

There comes a time when God’s people have to absent themselves from the life of the world and carefully observe God’s wisdom in His word. 

The wrath of God falls in punishment on those who are not believers. Revelation 7 records the census of God’s warriors and their sealing with the seal of the living God. They are secured from heresy and harm by God’s wrath. 


Mediterranean Sea – Wiki Media Commons

I. We should hear God’s warning in every sea disaster. 

Fresco with Mount Vesuvius behind Bacchus and Agathodaemon, as seen in Pompeii’s House of the Centenary ca. AD 79.


vs. 8 The burning mass cast into the sea — This vision seems in John’s mind to be a volcanic-like eruption that slides into the sea. The explosion of Mount Vesuvius was fresh in the minds of all around the sea. The Greek word hôs (“like”) is used, so it is difficult to say how literally this vision’s fulfillment should be taken by us. The Romans referred to the Mediterranean Sea nostri maris (“our sea”). They were at the time the masters of their world in their thinking. Yet we know who is the Master — The Lord God Almighty!

The Rev. Peter Marshall preached at the Naval Academy hours before the announcement came that Pearl Harbor had been bombed by the Japanese. His prayer at that time was helpful as a great many would soon be at sea in war.

In the Old Testament, “mountains” are symbolic of nations, especially evil, overweening nations (see Jeremiah 51:24-25; click the links in any of my posts and they will open in another window so you won’t lose your place here). 

This is most surely a battle at sea that affects and destroys 1/3 of the salt water and creatures therein. 

One third of the sea became blood — This imagery suggests the first plague in Exodus 7:20-21. The word “sea” has the definite article indicating the Mediterranean Sea was in John’s mind. see Isaiah 15:9 for a reference to “blood” as an image of a battle.

vs. 9 One third of the creatures in the sea are smitten and 1/3 of ships destroyed — This plague afflicts the salt water inhabitants. It also affects commerce and trade.

We should see in every disaster involving the sea, a battle the Almighty institutes against those who persecute His people. Our God is the sovereign over the environment.

Revelation 8

10 The third angel blew his trumpet, and a great star fell from heaven, blazing like a torch, and it fell on a third of the rivers and on the springs of water. 11 The name of the star is Wormwood. A third of the waters became wormwood, and many people died from the water, because it had been made bitter.

II. In every disaster in connection with fresh water we should hear God’s warning.



vs. 10 The Fresh Water Smitten — This plague is the fresh water counterpart to the previous one that affected the salt water. This is a burning object. It along with the volcano in the last trumpet is symbolic of Divine visitation. The text says that it affected 1/3 of the rivers and the springs.

At times, God touches the fresh water of a land to draw people away from earthly pursuits and fix them on the eternal! Such things are warnings to unbelievers and to believers alike. The Texts on which the following hymn are based: Isaiah 55:1, 2; Matthew 11:28-30.

vs. 11 The Star that Fell — Wormwood” (apsinthos in Greek) is a bush like our western sage bush. It is a variety of artemesia absinthium. All of them have a bitter taste.

There is a liqueur made from it that can either kill a man, if given in a large dose, or leave him mentally deranged, in a smaller dose.

Bitter Water — This judgment against the fresh water leads to the death of many (polloi) . It is restricted to 1/3 of mankind. This is a reversal of the miracle at Marah (Exodus 15:23 ff)

Next time, the fourth trumpet and the announcement of the Three Woes.

Notes (Sources of this study)

Beale, G. K. (2015). Revelation: a Shorter Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Kindle Edition.

Hendriksen, Wm. More Than Conquerors: An Interpretation of the Book of Revelation. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.

Johnson, A. F. (1996). Revelation (Expositor’s Bible Commentary series). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing Co.

Johnson, D. E. (2001). Triumph of the Lamb: A Commentary on Revelation Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishers. Kindle Edition.

© 2020 C. Richard Barbare All Rights Reserved

The First Trumpet Blast

Revelation 8

7 The first angel blew his trumpet, and there followed hail and fire, mixed with blood, and these were thrown upon the earth. And a third of the earth was burned up, and a third of the trees were burned up, and all green grass was burned up.

Image above from: Brady Smith USDA Forest Service

Structure — The entire trumpet series can be divided into two parts — (1) the first four and (2) the last three. This is similar to the seals forces that are unleashed in the world.

In the first four trumpets we have (1) indirect judgments, and for the most part nature is touched. Man is only affected indirectly, but powerfully. In the last three trumpets (2) the judgment is direct and more potent. It seems that the Lord is warning in the first four and is judging in the last three.

Parallels between the Seals and the Trumpet Judgments

I. God is in total control of the disasters He brings upon the earth to punish the persecutors of His people.

Note with the beginning of the trumpet judgments, we see specific, but partial, judgments brought on those who persecute Christ’s people. I draw parallels between the first four seal judgments (abstract forces) and the first four trumpets in the chart above.

The background to the effects of the first four seals is Ezekiel 14:13-14; 21. 

Siege attack in Roman times

Roman Siege Warfare from Ancient History Encyclopedia

I agree with Dennis E. Johnson that the first century believers would have seen the images of apocalyptic judgments as a description of war and its effects on a city or region under siege. “These four are the Lord’s weapons against lands and cities that defy his authority (see Johnson, D. E., below).

The key to interpretation of the images in apocalyptic literature is to note the impact of the images would have had upon the original audience, first. The Churches of Asia Minor would have seen these images as characteristics of siege warfare on their region.

The hail, fire, and blood would have destroyed their food supplies on the land. God is declaring war upon nature where His people are persecuted. He is also cutting off material things that people use to make their lives comfortable. This is the essence of idolatry — Romans 1:25 — “to worship and serve the creature rather than the Creator.

II. We ought always to keep in mind this judgment comes from the throne room of God.

Not only are the plagues from Egypt applied to the first century situation, the siege against Jericho and the subsequent fall of its walls are, too. If we find ourselves witnessing the wrath of God being poured out on sinful people, we must not shrink back in fear. God always punishes the persecutors of His people. God promises to bring down evil governments and nations all throughout the church age. He will use one evil nation to bring down another less evil nation. God will then bring another to bring down the winner (see Habakkuk for this strategy!).

God is sovereign over all nations and people. Trumpet-judgments are God’s war on ungodly persecution of His people!

I don’t always feel like singing in my prayer times, but I do feel much encouraged when I do! I love Paul Gerhard’s hymn — “Give to the Winds thy Fears.”

When I taught at a Bible School early in my ministry, I had privilege to teach a German Lutheran Sister — Schwester Waltraut Menzel. She was from the Diakonissen Mutterhaus Aidlingen, Germany, about 17 miles from Stuttgart. She was certainly a shining example of German Christians at their best! When our oldest son had meningitis at 18 months, she sat with him often so my wife could have some relief, during his 10 day hospital stay.

She gave me a book, Bright Valley of Love: The True Story of a Handicapped Child Who Finds a Haven of Love in the Nightmare of Nazi Germany. It is about a German community for handicapped individuals, Bethel, that was founded in 1867. Bethel stood firm during the Nazi period. It still exists today.


This former farmhouse building accommodated the first patients with epilepsy of the Rhinish-Westphalian Asylum for Epileptics founded in October 1867 above.


Epilepsy hospital “The Mara”. The Mara today is one of the main institutions of the Bethel Epilepsy Centre above.

The director of the community, pastor Friedrich Bodelschwingh, Jr., resisted Nazi attempts at removing the persons under his care. When given notice the T-4 group would be soon coming to remove untermenschlich (“sub-humans”) from their community, courageously, he sent this reply to the Nazis —

“You can put me into a concentration camp if you want, that is your affair. But as long as I am free, you do not touch one of my patients. I cannot change to fit the times or the wishes of the Führer. I stand under orders from our Lord Jesus Christ.” (Pastor Bodelschwingh, Jr. pictured below on a German postage stamp honoring him.)


German postage stamp honoring the son of the director of Bethel. He helped the community remain faithful and unharmed during the Nazi era.

Many times the Nazi T-4 organization threatened to transport all patients at Bethel to be euthanized, but the director refused to give in. In their darkest hour, a young crippled boy, Gunther, would appear outside Rev. Bodelschwingh’s study and sing Paul Gerhard’s hymns to encourage his faith. In that book, I first learned “Give to the Wind thy Fears.” (see Bethel Foundation, below.)

His grandmother had dropped him off, saying he was “loony , and all of the rest of Bethel residents were loony too.”

Later, Sister Marie at Bethel told Gunther, “When you sing praises to God, Gunther, somehow you remind us that we are not carrying our sorrows and troubles all alone” (See Hong, below). 

We too can stand for Christ in the midst of threatening judgments on our country or region or church. The wrath of God that falls on wicked people angers them so much that they strike out at God’s people! They cannot acknowledge God exits, so they strikeout at those who believe He does. We must “give to the winds our fear” and follow God who is faithful to His promises in all seasons of life.

III. Those who persecute God’s Church are at war with God, and God is at war with the persecuters of His people.

Saints may feel under siege by their neighbors, caught in the middle as it were between God and the punished earth-dwellers. We must take up prayers that God will send His judgment against hardened opponents of God’s work. We always hope for salvation, even of those who persecute Christians, but some are so determined to wipe out Christ’s Church that they refuse to repent.

One third — It is significant that these plagues all involve 1/3 of things. This speaks of the partial answering of the prayers of the saints now. There will be token fulfillments all through the age of the church and just before the end there will be the complete fulfillment. The seven bowls will record the final manifestation of the wrath of God. The trumpets are only warnings of impending doom, and are, therefore, partial. The first area affected is that of man’s natural environment — the greenery. Food supply was always an object of destruction in a siege. We do well to see that God inflicts punishment from natural occurrences — weather, etc.

The partial character of these judgments reveal God is punishing in part before the end of the age. To believers God warns not to be too closely aligned with their “earth-dwelling” neighbors. These are they who are in step with the times and social elitists

Next time, trumpets two and three.


Beale, G. K. (2015). Revelation: a Shorter Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Kindle Edition.

Bethel Foundation. (2020). Accessed 5 June 2020 from

Hendriksen, Wm. More Than Conquerors: An Interpretation of the Book of Revelation. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.

Hong, E. H. (1976). Bright Valley of Love: The True Story of a Handicapped Child Who Finds a Haven of Love in the Nightmare of Nazi Germany. Augsburg Press.

Johnson, A. F. (1996). Revelation (Expositor’s Bible Commentary series). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing Co.

Johnson, D. E. (2001). Triumph of the Lamb: A Commentary on Revelation Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishers. Kindle Edition.


© 2020 C. Richard Barbare All Rights Reserved

The Angels Prepare to Sound their Trumpets: a Brief Orientation

Revelation 8:6

6 Now the seven angels who had the seven trumpets prepared to blow them.

Before beginning explanation of the Trumpet-Judgments, we should perhaps look at the big-picture.

…The strange and startling events of the world’s history [are] the alarm notes blown by God’s angels across the world, to remind us of the war in which every citadel of evil must inevitably fall. (see Ellicott, below.)

I. God’s trumpet-judgments speak differently to us as  Christians than they do to the non-believers. 

To the wicked persecutors of Christ’s Church, trumpet-judgments say — repent of of your wicked ways or you will perish with the godless system you so value. “World (cosmos in Greek) most often refers to the humanistic system that is at odds with God (Matthew 18:7; John 15:19; 1 John 4:5).” (See Got Questions below.)

Golden Lampstand Church in China; Left: original building; Right: blown up by CCP.
Images from AP.

To God’s people, trumpet-judgments are a summons to the spiritual battle through prayer.

Ephesians 6 enlightens us about the war we involved in —

12 For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the cosmic powers over this present darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly places.

God’s people are facing evil, fallen angels at work in the world system opposing Christ and His Church. We must bear this in mind because physical weapons are ineffective against the forces of evil working behind human beings who believe their lies.  Only fervent prayers can break down the evil infra-structure built up in the spirit world behind evil humans being’s actions. II Corinthians 10 denies to us the use of physical weapons —

4 For the weapons of our warfare are not of the flesh but have divine power to destroy strongholds.

When Paul describes the armor, he gives us the defensive/offensive armor with which to engage in prayer! 

18 pray…at all times in the Spirit, with all prayer and supplication. To that end, keep alert with all perseverance, making supplication for all the saints, 19 and also for me, that words may be given to me in opening my mouth boldly to proclaim the mystery of the gospel, 20 for which I am an ambassador in chains, that I may declare it boldly, as I ought to speak.

Some might view what I have said about defensive/offensive weapons to be strange. They see everything but the Sword of the Spirit as defensive. Think about it for a moment. When soldiers go the war, they do not throw weapons from the armory at the enemy. They confront the enemy as active soldiers who are outfitted with weapons from God’s armory. God equips us in Christ for the spiritual warfare in which we are engaged. We are His praying soldiers! 

When we see various catastrophes occurring around us,  we ought not despair or worry. God is at work, and we should pray and ask that His will be accomplished through what is occurring. We may not understand why things happen, but we can rest assured God has ordered those circumstances.


by Julius Schnoor von Carolsfeld (1794–1872) WikiCommons

II. Trumpets signal to believers that God is present to bring this evil age to an end.

Not only are the trumpet-visions connected with the Exodus plagues, but they are also connected to the Battle of Jericho. See Joshua 6 for the account of the fall of Jericho’s walls (the link will open in a separate window).  

HotelSanSalvadorHebrews 12:26-27 reveals that we are meant to feel unsure about our earthly surroundings. If they totter and we find no place where we feel secure, we ought to set our hearts on that place that cannot be shaken. We ought to trust in God who is our refuge and fortress.

26 At that time his voice shook the earth, but now he has promised, “Yet once more I will shake not only the earth but also the heavens.” 27 This phrase, “Yet once more,” indicates the removal of things that are shaken—that is, things that have been made—in order that the things that cannot be shaken may remain. (ESV).

The trumpet visions portray limited disasters and distresses in the midst of history, events that are bitter foretastes of the final, unrestrained strained destruction of all opposition to God’s reign at the end of the present world order (see D. E. Johnson below).

So, God is intent on destroying this evil world and its system and giving the renew earth to his people. The trumpet-visions show us how God does this partially throughout the last days that extend from Christ’s resurrection to His second coming at the end of the age. 

We should not look to the symbols in Revelation as if they are newspaper accounts and then transfer them to 21st Century life. Fire = missiles, etc. I suggest that we ought to pay close attention to

(1) the sphere of judgment: land, sea, rivers, and sky
the extent of judgment: 1/3
the effects of the judgment: world system interrupted, God’s people shielded, and  wicked punished.

These areas will yield the best interpretation and application to our everyday lives as we will see as we progress through the trumpet-judgments in future posts. 

III. Trumpets hail a New Exodus of believers from this world to the kingdom of God.

These plagues are now shown to be typological or prophetic foreshadowings of God’s judgments against unbelievers throughout the church age and culminating in the last judgment, which initiates the final exodus of God’s people from this world of captivity into eternal freedom (see Beale, below). 

Trumpet Judgments Chart

Trumpets in ancient Israel in the wilderness signaled preparation to march toward the promised land. Revelation allows us to see in disasters around us that we Christians are on the march toward the eternal kingdom of God. We are not yet at our final destination. We will leave this place of suffering and godless living to take our place there. All unrest around Christ’s people ought to cause us to see Christ is leading his people in a New Exodus toward their eternal home. Remember, these trumpet angels come from the very presence of God. He is in control!

Trumpet specifics next time. 


Beale, G. K. (2015). Revelation: a Shorter Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Kindle Edition.

Ellicott, C. J. (1878). Ellicott’s Bible Commentary For English Readers, Volume 3 Reprint (Harrington, DE: DelmarvA Publications. Kindle Edition.

Got Questions. (2020). “What does it mean that we are not to love the world?” Blog post; accessed 29 May 2020 from

Johnson, D. E. (2001). Triumph of the Lamb: A Commentary on Revelation Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishers. Kindle Edition.

Luther, Martin. (1853 printing). Bible in German. (Leipzig, Germany: Baumgärtners Buchhandlung, 1853) p. 291. Image above the post.

© 2020 C. Richard Barbare All Rights Reserved